7. It may be appropriate at this time to take a few moments to discuss the development of the piano and its literature. The harpsichord, the early pianoforte (leather-covered hammers, etc.) and the modern piano should be discussed before introducing the Beethoven sonata. Mention has already been made of the recordings of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 23 performed on the pianoforte, and it may be compared to the later sounds and effects of the romantic concert grand. Beethoven’s Pathétique Sonata can then be placed in context. The text provides an analysis, and the complete work is included on CONNECT MUSIC, on the mp3 set, or via the music download card. 8. Beethoven’s string quartets are considered among the greatest in the entire literature, so much so that they simultaneously intimidated and inspired such composers as Schubert, Brahms, and Bartók. The fourth movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet Op. 18 no. 4, composed between 1798 and 1800, was discussed in the section on rondo form (V-6). That section includes a Listening Outline, and the movement is included on CONNECT MUSIC, on the mp3 set, or via the music download card. A comparison of the opus 18 movement with the opus 130 would illustrate his early and late periods. 9. One should not leave the subject of Beethoven without at least suggesting that some consideration be given to granting the students the opportunity of hearing Schiller’s Ode to Joy and the magnificent Ninth Symphony. The text, with translation, should be duplicated so that the students may understand the poem. You might mention the rock adaptation (?!) of the brotherhood theme issued under the title Song of Joy some years back, in case any of the students may still remember it, and compare it to 13 | I M - P a r t 5
the original (actually, no comparison!) More important than the rock version, however, is the current movement in Europe where the brotherhood theme is assuming the status of an unofficial anthem. Le Drapeau de l’Europe (The Flag of Europe), by which this hymn is known, expresses the hope for a peaceful, harmonious European community. Questions and Topics 1. Describe Beethoven’s childhood and early musical training. 2. Describe the sources of Beethoven’s income during his Viennese period. 3. Describe the manner in which Beethoven unified the contrasting movements in his works. 4. Describe those elements of Beethoven’s style that contribute to the dramatic intensity of hismusic. 5. Divide Beethoven’s output into periods, and define the characteristics of each phase of his development. 6. The Heiligenstadt testament: triumph of genius? 7. Fidelio: opera or staged oratorio? 8. Beethoven the romanticist. 14 | I M - P a r t 5
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- Spring '13
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony