8282019 Overview of Computer System Architecture Single processor system von

8282019 overview of computer system architecture

This preview shows page 30 - 50 out of 74 pages.

8/28/2019
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Overview of Computer System Architecture Single-processor system von Neumann Architecture Multiprocessor system Clustered Systems 8/28/2019
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Single Processor System Many systems use a single general- purpose processor Most systems have special- purpose processors, but they do not run user programs Example: Disk-controller processor 8/28/2019
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A von Neumann Architecture 8/28/2019
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Multiprocessor System Multiprocessors systems growing in use and importance Also known as parallel systems, tightly-coupled systems Advantages include: 1. Increased throughput 2. Economy of scale 3. Increased reliability – graceful degradation or fault tolerance Two types: 1. Asymmetric Multiprocessing – each processor is assigned a specie task. 2. Symmetric Multiprocessing – each processor performs all tasks 8/28/2019
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Types of Multiprocessor Systems Asymmetric multiprocessing Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) 8/28/2019
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Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture 8/28/2019
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Multi-chip and Multicore Multi-chip vs. multicore Multi-core design: multiple CPU cores on a single chip On-chip communication is faster than between-chip communication 8/28/2019
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A Dual-Core Design 8/28/2019
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Memory Access Memory access on multiprocessor systems can be either Uniform memory access (UMA) Non-uniform memory access (NUMA)
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8/28/2019
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Clustered Systems Like multiprocessor systems, but multiple systems working together Usually sharing storage via a storage-area network (SAN) Provides a high-availability service which survives failures Asymmetric clustering has one machine in hot-standby mode Symmetric clustering has multiple nodes running applications, monitoring each other Some clusters are for high-performance computing (HPC) Applications must be written to use parallelization Some have distributed lock manager (DLM) to avoid conflicting operations 8/28/2019
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Clustered Systems: Example 8/28/2019
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Questions? Single processor system vs. multiprocessor system Multi-chip vs multi-core design Memory access: UMA vs NUMA Cluster systems 8/28/2019
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Overview of Operating System Structure Multiprogramming (batch system) Multitask (time sharing) 8/28/2019
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Multiprogramming Organizing jobs so that the CPU always has a program to execute. Multiprogramming (Batch system) needed for efficiency Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to execute A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory One job selected and run via job scheduling When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job 8/28/2019
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Memory Layout for Multiprogrammed System 8/28/2019
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Timesharing Timesharing (multitasking) is logical extension of multiprogramming in which CPU switches jobs so frequently that users can interact with each job while it is running, creating interactive computing Response time should be < 1 second Each user has at least one program executing in
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  • Computer data storage

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