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Cuban government leads an unsuccessful attack against De sores oIn Response, De sores slaughters the prisoners and burns down the town in Havana “ Sacking of Havana”1555Desores had a religious element of his attacksViewed the catholic Spanish as enemies Raids are to stamp out non protestant beliefs Desecrates the churches before burning them down How Does Spain Respond? -Begins transporting cargos in fleets ( flota/fleet)sailing in tandem and have a schedule-Two fleets:oNew Spain SevilleVera Cruz HavanaoTierra FirmeSeville CartagenaPanama Havana -Ships are vulnerable, travelling in Hurricane season, Spain loses vessels over the year due to Hurricanes o1715: loses a lot of treasure due to a Hurricane where the golden age of piracy is based on-When others find out about their schedule, they plan and then attack oArea becomes a beacon for pirates as a result
Spanish new World Fortresses-1520-1560s -Substantial sums are devoted to building up defense -Areas: oCastillo San Felipe de Barajs, Cartagena, ColumbiaoCastillo San Felipe del Morro, San juan, Puerto Rico-Costs Spanish crown a lot of money to maintain these forts -Spain is still receiving annual supplies of treasure-Overseas empire looks impression-Problem: the further you get, the more prone the administration become corrupt -But there’s still other ports that are vulnerable to individual campaign Improving the Defense of Spain by Pedro Menendez de Aviles in the mid 16thC-Proposed ofortifying the principal harbors in SpainoThe creation of squadrons and Flotilla to patrol the CaribbeanoThe fortification of FloridaoUse of powerful men-of-war to escort the treasure fleets and even serve as treasure ships -Was responsible for the capture of more than 50 pirates, privateer and interloper vesselsLa Caroline/ Fort Caroline, Florida -French build a settlement so Spanish hear about it and get really mad-Force under Pedro Menendez De Avile (1564/65) sails and establishes a base at St. Augustine (30 miles to the south of La Caroline) oFrench hear about it and do a sneak attack but they are caught in a hurricane oMenendez marches to la Caroline ( its not defended because they got caught in ahurricane) oMenendez tells them to convert or they are killed [ Matanzas River] Queen Elizabeth I ( 1533- 1603) and John Hawkins ( 1532- 1595) -English ships arrive in Caribbean to trade-English and Spain have an alliance against France -But Elizabeth I ( a protestant) sees Spain as an enemy-John Hawkins trying to make money in Spain oIn command of an expedition from West Africa, and attempts to trade his slaves to a Spanish plantation [ but this isn’t allowed under Spanish law]oHe doesn’t go into the principal portoGoes directly to the plantation owners (where the rules aren’t really followed) and he meets no resistanceoReturns to England a wealthy man oIn 1565: queen offers him a warship in exchange for some profit from the voyage