Litter leaves twigs dead plants Humus black gelatinous organic matter from

Litter leaves twigs dead plants humus black

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-Litter – leaves, twigs, dead plants -Humus – black gelatinous organic matter from decomposed residues Soil Profiles -Soil development in 2 dimensions: TIME & DEPTH -4 processes deepen and age soil -Addition -Translocation -Transformation -Loss
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Pedology Soil Science Petrology Rocks Science Soil Horizons – distinct layers with different characteristics SOLUM – true soil -O horizon: organic materials, litter. -A horizon: mineral matter mixed with humus. All seeds are germinating in A horizon. -E horizon: zone of leaching . Sand and silt. -B horizon: subsoil. Zone of accumulation of clay, iron and aluminum from above. ---------------------------------------------------------- -C horizon: partially altered parent material, *trees cannot extend roots to C horizon* -R horizon: unweathered parent material, rocks. Primary soil classes CHAPTER QUESTIONS 1. The boreal forest in subarctic locations is the typical setting for _________ - Podzolization 2. A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered: - Neutral *less than 7 – acidic *more than 7 – alkaline *7 – neutral 3. The soil horizon comprising unconsolidated parent material beyond the reach of most roots is: - C horizon 4. The soil forming factor which relates to the parent material composition is the _________ forming factor. - Geologic 5. Regimes where soil-forming physical-chemical-biological processes occur are called: - Pedogenic regimes (soil-forming) 6. _______ are positively charged particles which are essential for soil fertility and plant growth. - Cations 7. When the available soil water has been completely depleted, the _______ point has been reached.
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