4. Miller J.G. (1987) Living Systems , New York: McGraw Hill Book Company
LESSON 4:THE AIMS AND THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION 4.0 Introduction In this lesson, we are going to define a goal of education and an educational aim. We shall also define long-term objectives and short term objectives in education. In our discussion, we shall find out that short term-objectives, which are also known as instructional objectives, are each categorised into levels. We shall finally discuss how to construct instructional objectives. You as a teacher need to be aware that there are conditions, which any good objective should fulfil. 4.1 Objectives By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: • Define what a goal of education is: • Define what an aim of education is: • Define what a long-term objective of education is: • Define what a short – term objective of education is: • Identify the various levels in each domain of an instructional objective. • Identify objectives, which belong to different domains/taxonomies of knowledge. • List the conditions that a good objective should fulfil. An educational objective is a description of what learners will do (or be able to do) once instruction has been completed. This is a learning product or a desirable state which you as a teacher hopes will result from the instruction whether in one lesson, lesson course or curriculum. It implies the competencies your learners are supposed to achieve after a specified period of time Question
Why is it necessary for a teacher to set objectives or define clearly what to achieve by the end of his/her teaching period? 4.2 Goals of Education. Each society has a vision of what attributes, its members should have. The societies’ past and present view education as a vehicle of acquiring and developing the desired attributes such as knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. Education therefore is a process through which the learner is helped to acquire desirable changes. The Lessoned Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO), has set out goals of education, which give the general direction of the education offered by the individual countries of the world. Some of UNESCO’S goals of education are that education must; • Foster international consciousness. • Improve standards of living in various countries of the world. • Solve continuing problems that affect humanity such as war, hunger, disease and unemployment. The UNESCO’S goals of education are very broad and give a general but desirable direction to which education offered by the individual countries of the world should focus. Through seminars, conferences and the sponsoring of scientific training, the UNESCO’S goals of education are harmonised with each individual country’s aims of education.
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- ........., formal education