Aluminum fluoride iron and even gold are used to treat various conditions The

Aluminum fluoride iron and even gold are used to

This preview shows page 2 - 5 out of 9 pages.

- Aluminum, fluoride, iron, and even gold are used to treat various conditions. - The effects of these elements usually were discovered accidentally when a cause. Ferrous fumarate It is used to treat iron deficiency anemia (a lack of red blood cells caused by having too little iron in the body). Aluminum hydroxide It is an antacid available in over the counter (OTC) medicines that relieve heartburn, acid ingestion, sour stomach, and upset stomach. Synthetic Sources Semisynthetic: naturally occurring substance that has been chemically altered. Synthesized: made in laboratory to imitate a naturally occurring drug. Sulfonamides Are group of synthetic antimicrobial agents that are structural analogs of para amino benzoic acid (PABA). Barbiturates It is a drug that acts as a central nervous system
Image of page 2
depressant and can therefore produce a wide range of effects, from mild sedation to death. 4. Briefly describe the different phase of drug evaluation.
Image of page 3
Phase I - During phase I of a clinical trial, investigators spend several months looking at the effects of the medication on about 20 to 80 people who have no underlying health conditions. - This phase aims to figure out the highest dose humans can take without serious side effects. - In addition to evaluating safety and ideal dosage, investigators also look at the best way to administer the drug, such as orally, intravenously, or topically. - According to the FDA, approximately 70 percent of medications move on to phase II Phase II - Phase II of a clinical trial involves several hundred participants who are living with the condition that the new medication is meant to treat. They are usually given the same dose that was found to be safe in the previous phase. - They monitor the participants for several months or years to see how effective the medication is and to gather more information about any side effects it might cause. - It involves more participants than earlier phases, it is still not large enough to demonstrate the overall safety of a medication. Phase III - Phase III of a clinical trial usually involves up to 3,000 participants who have the condition that the new medication is meant to treat. - Trials in this phase can last for several years. - The purpose of phase III is to evaluate how the new medication works in comparison to existing medications for the same conditions. - To move forward with the trial, they need to demonstrate that the medication is at least as safe and effective as existing treatment options. - The use a process called randomization. - This involves randomly choosing some participants to receive the new medication and other to receive an existing medication. - The FDA usually require a phase III clinical trial before approving new medication. Due to the larger number of participants and longer duration or phase III, rare and long-term side effects are more likely to show up during this phase.
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 9 pages?

  • Summer '19
  • Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Food and Drug Administration

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture