Compared with toddlers, preschoolers rely more on words to communicate empathic feelings. And as the ability to take another's perspective improves, empathic responding increases. Yet in some children, empathy—feeling with another person and responding emotionally in a similar way—does not yield acts of kindness and helpfulness but, instead, escalates into personal distress. In trying to reduce these feelings, the child focuses on his own anxiety rather than the person in need. As a result, empathy does not lead to sympathy—feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight. Temperament plays a role in whether empathy prompts sympathetic, prosocial behavior or self-focused personal distress. Children who are sociable, assertive, and good at regulating emotion are more likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress. But poor emotion regulators, who are often overwhelmed by their feelings, less often display sympathetic concern and prosocial behavior. As with other aspects of emotional development, parenting affects empathy and sympathy. When parents show sensitive, empathic concern for their preschoolers' feelings, children are likely to react in a concerned way to the distress of others—relationships that persist into adolescence and early adulthood. Besides modeling sympathy, parents can teach children the importance of kindness and can intervene when they display inappropriate emotion—strategies that predict high levels of sympathetic responding.2.In social-constructivist classrooms, children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children acquire knowledge and strategies through working together, they become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development.Vygotsky's emphasis on the social origins of higher cognitive processes has also inspired the following educational themes:Teachers and children as partners in learning.A classroom rich in both teacher–child and child–child collaboration transfers culturally valued waysof thinking to children.Experiences with many types of symbolic communication in meaningful activities.As children master reading, writing, and mathematics, they become aware of their culture's communication systems, reflect on their own thinking, and bring it under voluntary control.Teaching adapted to each child's zone of proximal development.Assistance that both responds to current understandings and encourages children to take the next step helps ensure that each child makes the best progress possible.Cooperative learning.In this peer collaboration, small groups of classmates work toward common goals—by resolving differences of opinion, sharing responsibilities, and providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings.
3.Children whose parents use an authoritative child-rearing style feel especially
- Spring '16
- Arturo Vazquez
- d., c. Throwing