PSA test is just a part of the process of screening for prostate cancer. One must remember that this is just a screening test; many factors can influence the test results. For example, the size of the prostate, prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), urinary tract infection, sexual stimulation, obesity, and certain medications can cause the normal lab values of the PSA to be higher or lower than expected which can create false positives and false negatives. Serum levels may increase slightly after a digital rectal exam, and the performance of cystoscopy or prostate biopsy can increase PSA levels as much as tenfold for up to 10 weeks (Eastham, 2017). Most doctors and labs consider PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal however if a man had a PSA level above 4.0 ng/mL, the provider may recommend additional testing like prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present (Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2019). In the end, one must remember that this is just a screening and diagnostic tool to aid the provider in seeing the whole the picture when assessing a patient and coming to a diagnosis.
References Eastham, J. (2017, June 20). Prostate cancer screening. Retrieved from NIH- National Cancer Institute. (2017, October 4). Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test. Retrieved from Prostate Cancer Foundation. (2019). Is it the Prostate or Prostrate Gland? What Does it Do? Retrieved from - cancer/prostate-gland/
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- Summer '15
- Prostate cancer, prostate specific antigen