Past outbreaks such as 1918 spanish flu have killed

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Past outbreaks, such as 1918 “Spanish flu,” have killed millions worldwide oRecent outbreaks of H1N1 (“Swine flu”) and H5N1 (“Avian flu”) have the potential to become especially serious pandemics oModern Disease Profile-Rank of Main Causes of Death in the US 1.Heart disease2.Cancer3.Stroke4.Chronic Lung Disease5.Accidents 6.Alzheimer’s I.The Complexity of Modern IIIs: Heart DiseaseA.Heart Disease represents an example of the complexity of modern health problems 1.Multiple, interacting factors contribute to the risk of developing heart disease by pathways not yet fully understood2.Significant risk factors include:
a.Sex (specifically male), advancing age, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, diabetes, obesity b.Lifestyle behaviors that do not occur in a vacuum II.History of Epidemiology and DiseaseA.In the World-System1.Modernization in the World-Systema.What caused the changes in the social environment that led to the Modern Disease Profile? The shift from rural agrarian socio-economic systems toindustrialized, capitalist societies = Modernization (shift toward capitalistic economy)Occurred in the context of a “world-system” characterized by uneven development across the nations of the world, to the advantage of some at the expense of others When one society rose, it is always at the expense of some other society Shift in the economy occurs differently in different societies BMI – the best measurement for obesity but is a flawed system because does not account for body mass as a muscle Lecture 4-Social Demography – what is and why it is that way-Power of the mind and perception is greater than medicine B.In the World-System1.MODERNIZATION IN THE WORLD-SYSTEMa.Core Nations (Eg., U.S.) – upper classWorld systems achieve their modernization by the exploitation of Peripheral NationsEg. colonizationThey have taken advantage of the less developing countriesb.Semiperipheral Nations – middle class
South Koreac.Peripheral Nations – lower class little to no industrializationThe health profiles of industrialized societies (DCs) are different from that of developing and less developed countries (LDCs).The modern disease in Peripheral Nations look more like what the Core Nations used to look liked.Modernizing countries experience: Reduced mortality from infectious diseases and parasitic disordersDeclines in other diseases of the digestive and respiratory systems with a communicable componentIncreases in life expectancy Declines in infant mortalityEarly ages of life most vulnerable to infectious diseasesIncreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, and other physical ailments associated with modern livingHigher standard of living is only good to a certainextent Too much food – obesityToo much preservatives – cancerous2.THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION3 stage process accompanying modernizationStage 1: Initial Phase

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