Therefore more longitudinal studies researching a

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Therefore, more longitudinal studies (researching a neighborhood more than once) than cross-sectional studies (looking at a neighborhood once) POPULARITY OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY DECLINED IN THE 1960’S INFLUENCED BY SELF REPORT STUDIES SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES BECOME DOMINANT NEXT: STRAIN THEORIES CLASSIC Strain theory ASSUMPTION –SOME CONDITION IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE CAUSES STRAIN TO WHICH PEOPLE ADAPT TO THIS STRAIN. ADAPTATION TO STRAIN CAN BE MANY BEHAVIORS BUT SOMETIMES THAT ADAPTATION IS CRIMINAL OR DEVIANT BEHAVIOR. Emile durkheim—ANOMIE ITS ORIGIN IS FOUND IN THE BOOK, SUICIDE , BY SOCIOLOGIST EMILE DURKHEIM (1951) Uses the term anomie —when the moral force behind standards for appropriate behavior decline during a period of social change, this creates anomie suicide— one of five types of suicides found in case studies on rates of suicide in European countries. Durkheim Social environment as the cause of suicide: social changes such as an industrial/financial crisis create a friction between needs and means and when the government is unable to regulate during a crisis, unhappiness ensues resulting in anomie suicide. OVERS A DECADE LATER, THE SOCIOLOGIST ROBERT MERTON APPLIES AND BROADENS DURKHEIM’S CONCEPTS OF ANOMIE TO CRIME IN AMERICA. ROBERT K. MERTON –SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND ANOMIE –1938 AMERICAN SOCIETY GENERATES CULTURAL CONDITION OF ANOMIE/NORMLESSNESS
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AMERICAN SOCIETY PLACES MORE EMPHASIS ON GOALS (MONETARY SUCCESS) AND LESS ON THE APPROPRIATE WAYS TO OBTAIN GOALS (NORMS) DISCUSSION: GIVE SOME EXAMPLES THE COMBINATION OF AN ANOMIC SOCIETAL CULTURE (OVEREMPHASIS ON GOALS COMPARED TO MEANS) AND STRUCTURED INEQUALITY LEADS TO STRAIN AND THE NEED TO ADAPT. THE ADAPTATIONS In situations creating pressure, individuals accept, reject, or form new cultural goals and institutional means for economic success. CONFORMITY: when individuals accept the cultural goals and institutionalized means. Therefore, individuals strive to achieve cultural goals of economic success through legitimate means—they do not commit deviant acts. INNOVATION: when the cultural goals are accepted, however, the means are not accepted, therefore, individuals commit deviant acts for economic success. RITUALISM: rejecting the goals and accepting the means: an individual works legitimately but not in pursuit of economic success. RETREATISM: rejecting both the goals and means. Therefore, individuals do not seek economic success and do not strive to attain economic success through legitimate means. REBELLION: phases of accepting and/or rejecting the cultural goals and accepting and/or rejecting institutional means for economic success. ADAPTATIONS BASED ON THE ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF THE GOALS AND NORMS OF SOCIETY ADAPTATION GOALS MEANS CONFORMITY + + INNOVATION + - RITUALISM - + RETREATISM - - REBELLION ++ -- CAN YOU IDENTIFY OTHERS EXAMPLES OF THESE ADAPTATIONS?
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