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of opposition, the lines between each vowel (A, E, O, and I) serve to establish the relationship between the logics. Thus, universal affirmatives (A) are contrary to universal negative (E) and
WEEK SIX ESSAY3contradictory to particular negatives (O). Universal negatives (E) and particular affirmatives (I) are also contradictory, while particular negatives (I) and particular affirmatives (O) are subcontrary. An example is "Tangerines are orange," translating this statement into A is "All tangerines are orange," and translated into E is "No tangerines are orange." While, translated intoI is "Some tangerines are orange," and into O is "Some tangerines are not orange." For the standard-form claim, it is a general statement that is true, as some tangerines can have a color different from orange. Because the format of A is "All S are P," then it is easy to add the word "all" and transform it to "All tangerines are orange." The example turned into E, where "No S areP," will be "No tangerines are orange," and this will never be true.
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Logic, Syllogism, Categorical proposition, Moore & Parker, Traditional logic