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Jackson denounces the result as a “corrupt bargain”-Jackson argues that since he was a frontrunner, the people will had been denied. He forms a movement called “The Democracy” around himself and storms to victory over Adams in 1828 Andrew Jackson as the first “Jacksonian American” -Individualism (Orphan) -Mobility (from Carolina to Tennessee)-Economic Opportunities (from rags to riches)-Economic Dangers (from riches to rags)-Romanticism - Man of Action (Jackson’s duels)Jackson in office (1829 - 1837)-Most powerful President so far-Motto: “The voice of the people is the supreme Law”-Issues more vetoes in his eight years, than his predecessors did in 40-“To the victor belongs the spoils” (political spoils system - patronage)-Jackson’s Political Logic - The President’s job is to protect the people from dangers that threaten their freedom The Bank War-Charter of the 2nd Bank of the US due to expire in 1836-Bank’s director and political allies decide to bring it up early thinking AJ won’t dare veto it in the middle of his election bid-His “Bank Veto Message’ encapsulates his economic and political philosophy Jackson’s Bank Veto Message -presented to Jackson on 4th July -a lot of investors in the bank are foreigners -“it is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes”-“There are no necessary evils in government, its evil exists only in its abuses”-“In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principals”-banks play favorites, would benefit some people more than the other Indian Removal-Indian Removal Act, 1830-All Indians removed to west of Mississippi (Okla)
-Worcester v. Georgia, 1832-Marshall upheld Indian treaties (land rights)-Georgia, with Jackson’s approval ignored the ruling-Chief Justice Marshall declared but not able to enforce it-“Five Civilized Tribes”-forcibly dispossessed and transported to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)-Trail of Tears Nullification Crisis-JQ Adams raises tariff on imports (highest until 1930s)-South feels economically oppressed by the “tariff of abominations” (tax on the south)-Jackson reduces tariff, but it was too little too late for South Carolina radicals-1832, South Carolina (Calhoun) declares the tariff “null and void”-Showdown with Jackson - “Force Bill” S.C. alone, retreats - Lesson? -Military force to enforce the tariff -Federal government > state government Second Party System: Democrats vs. Whigs (1833 - 1854)-The “Whig” Party - Opposed to “King Andrew the First”-Northern Wing: (Activists, “Federalist,” Pro-Bank)-opposes Jackson’s acts more than his methods-Southern Wing: (Passive, States’ rights, Anti-Bank)-opposes Jackson’s method more than his acts 11/18Religion, Revival and ReformIrreligion in the New Republic-1790-1820, Percent of Americans who are “unChurched” (not members of any church) highest level in all of American history - approx. 90% (versus c. 40% today) -Causes:-Disestablishment of Religion (no tax support)-Enlightenment Skepticism (example: Jefferson’s “Bible”)-Lack of Churches on the Frontier -“Old Theology” - Predestination (man is a hopeless sinner), is not very attractive or appealing