That such risk never entirely eliminable 15 from

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that such risk, never entirely eliminable (15) from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected vari- ables likely to arise. Frazier and Mosteller propose not (20) only that researchers limit data collec- tion on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more represen- tative sample of the total population with (25) the disease under study. Often research- ers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then (30) be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treat- ment’s efficacy for diverse patients under (35) various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient sub- groups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient’s stage of 2
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(40) disease. Patients’ ages may also affect a treatment’s efficacy. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q4: According to the passage, Frazier and Mosteller believe which of the following about medical research? A. It is seriously flawed as presently conducted because researchers overlook facts that are relevant to the subject of their research. B. It tends to benefit certain subgroups of patients disproportionately. C. It routinely reveals new variables in research on entirely new treatments. D. It can be made more accurate by limiting the amount of information researchers collect. E. It cannot be freed of the risk that significant variables may be overlooked. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q5: The author mentions patients’ ages (line 40) primarily in order to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q6: The passage is primarily concerned with ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q7 to Q10: The system of patent- granting, which confers 3
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temporary monopolies for Line the exploitation of new tech- (5) nologies, was originally established as an incentive to the pursuit of risky new ideas. Yet studies of the most patent-conscious (10) business of all—the semi-
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