body sustains a significant iron loss, or more iron is needed than can be absorbed, stores of iron are depleted, and the patient becomes iron deficient. Anemia then produces symptoms of fatigue, decreased energy levels and shortness of breath from reduced oxygen levels [Meh17]. Folate Deficiency Anemia
Folate deficiency anemia is classified as macrocytic anemia, containing large stem cells in the marrow that mature into enlarged erythrocytes [Hue17]. Humans do not generate folic acid and must obtain it from outside sources. Folates are in the plasma and urine as monoglutamates, allowing them to be transported across cell membranes. Enzymes in the small intestine convert monoglutamate to folate where it is absorbed in the jejunum. Within the plasma, folate is found in the 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-methyl THFA) and is associated with plasma albumin in circulation [Veg17]. The 5-methyl THFA enters the cell and is converted to THFA, the active form of folate- dependent enzymatic reactions. B12 is required for this conversion, and without it, folate is confined as 5-methyl THFA. Confined in this state, folate is unable to function in its metabolic pathways, and megaloblastic anemia occurs. THFA is essential for of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
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- Summer '17
- DEBORAH TERRY