NE101 Lecture Notes

Cns neuromodulators of reproductive behavior and

Info icon This preview shows pages 13–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CNS: neuromodulators of reproductive behavior (and social behavior in general). Periphery: oxytocin – maternal physiology (uterine contractions, milk letdown reflex); vasopression – increased blood pressure & decreased urine production. Vasopressin in voles Vasopressin receptors are distributed differently in the brains of polygynous meadow voles and monogamous prairie voles. Polygynous meadow moles expressing more receptors (after viral gene transfer, “+AAV” in figures)
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
behave more like monogamous prairie voles (prefer spending time with one partner) correlation between social behavior and expression of vasopressin receptors Monogamous prairie voles spend even more time with mate when given vasopressin Mice (normally polygynous) given vasopressin react like prairie voles if they are transgenically expressing prairie vole vasopressin receptors in their brains. November 5, 2012: Sensory Systems Sensation: transduction (body translation) of outside stimuli into action potentials Perception: organization and interpretation of the action potentials Sensation and perception are the same for all sensory modalities (sight, hearing, taste, touch) Two general principles of sensory systems function all sensory systems are organized hierarchically parallel processing Information can be processed bottom-up and top-down Labelled line principle: Sensory organs and cells respond selectively to different stimuli – specialized to process specific information that they were built to respond to. Example: visual cells: respond to wavelengths auditory cells: respond to pressure waves Receptors need to code and decode information Recruitment: increase stimulus intensity, more and more sensory receptors are activated Temporal summation: increase in intensity → more action potentials Peripheral modulation & central modulation Lateral inhibition: absolutely essential to all sensory modalities – neuron sending an inhibitory connection to a downstream neuron positive signal to the middle neuron – negative signal to the peripheral neurons allows peripheral modulation to occur Central modulation: Receptive field: Part of the external world that the receptor responds to higher the density of neurons/receptors, the greater the acuity, the smaller the receptive field VISION bipolar cells and horizontal cells provide the lateral inhibition center-surround: photoreceptors affect the excitatory/inhibitory state of a ganglion cell center-on – excitatory ganglion cell is activated surround off – inhibitory ganglion cell is inhibited November 7, 2012: Sensory Systems – Vision (cont.) I. The Retina Orientation of retina is backwards – photoreceptors are in the back of the retina → makes connection to bipolar cells → ganglion cells (axon of ganglion cells = optic nerve) Photoreceptors Rods: 120 million rods in each retina
Image of page 14
detect light ONLY – operate generally in dim light/dark
Image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern