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Healthcare job security and physical safety in the

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healthcare. Job security and physical safety in the workplace satisfy safety needs. When safetyneeds are satisfied, the employee focuses on belongingness or love, manifested through positiveworkplace relationships (Khan, 2010). Once met, the employee will focus on esteem needs asthey seek appreciation and being valued by colleagues and the organization. Finally, theemployee seeks self-actualization, which is the need to grow and fully develop their abilities andappreciate life. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory is progressive as it follows an order to attainpsychological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs.2.4.2 Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory)Copyright ©School of Management and MSM Kuwait, 2020.All rights reserved. No part of this project may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without theprior permission in written ofSchool of Management and/or MSM Kuwait.19
Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory is a regressive approach suggesting that job satisfaction anddissatisfaction are separate concepts. Frederick Herzberg developed the two-factor theory toexplain factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Alfayad & Arif, 2017). Thetheory stipulates that two types of factors, ‘motivating’ and ‘hygiene,’ influence job satisfactionor dissatisfaction. Some of the motivating factors that a workplace has to fulfill to promote jobsatisfaction among its workers are compensation, recognition, and achievement. However, if afirm does not pay attention to hygiene factors, it will promote job dissatisfaction. These elementsinclude working conditions, polities, organizational structure, job security, and working relations(Raghavendraet al., 2017; Alfayad & Arif, 2017). Thus, Herzberg’s theory provides that‘hygiene’ and ‘motivational’ factors are two dimensions of employee satisfaction.2.4.3 The Job Characteristics ModelThe Jobs Characteristics Model (JCM) states a direct relationship between intrinsic motivationculture and job satisfaction. Hackman & Oldham developed the theory in 1976 to assess theconditions that lead to satisfaction with work and motivate people to perform. (FriedandFerris ,1987) meta-analyses supported JCM job satisfaction theory (Page, 2020). JCM highlights fivedimensions: “skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback” associatedwith three psychological states: “the meaningfulness of work, responsibility for outcomes, andknowledgeresults''(Page, 2020). The above factors’ positive impacts are; increased intrinsicmotivation, high job performance, job satisfaction, and reduced absenteeism and turnover(Anjum et al., 2014; Blanz, 2017). Thus, the JCM identifies core dimensions and psychologicalstates of intrinsic motivation that increase job satisfaction.

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