ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Role overload is experienced when the employee is

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satisfy. Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he or she is to do. Stress factors in an employee’s personal life can spill over to the job and cause problems. National surveys consistently show that people hold families and personal relationships dear. Marital difficulties or other family problems typically create stress for employees and aren’t left at the front door when they arrive at work. In addition, economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources are another set of troubles that can create stress for employees and distract their attention from their work. Stress shows itself in a number of ways. Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms because the topic was researched by health and medical specialists. Research led to the conclusion that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increase blood pressure, bring on headaches, and induce heart attacks. The link between stress and particular physiological symptoms is not clear. Stress can cause dissatisfaction. Job-related stress can cause psychological symptoms. Job dissatisfaction is the most obvious psychological effect of stress. But stress shows itself in other psychological states such as tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. Evidence suggests that jobs providing a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity to incumbents create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. In many cases, a job can get so specialized that it becomes boring. Job enrichment is often a solution for this, and is basically the opposite of job specialization; it involves giving additional responsibilities . Job enrichment involves increasing the depth of the job--not giving just more work, but adding job planning and controlling elements. This is in contrast to job enlargement, which involves just adding more of the same Job enlargement involves adding to the position horizontally, by requiring more duties of a similar level of skill. While job enrichment, expands a position vertically with responsibility and depth, job enlargement involves simply adding more work. For example, giving a dishwasher a broader range of things to wash is job enlargement. Another term for this is horizontal loading. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders. Research indicates that low to moderate levels of stress stimulate the body and increase its ability to react. People then often perform their tasks better, more intensely, or more rapidly. Too much stress, though, often places unattainable demands or constraints on a person, which results in lower performance. In addition, moderate levels of stress can have a negative influence on
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