Function to help regulate the activities of b cells

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Function to “help” regulate the activities of B cells and T C cells during an immune response. Secrete various protein messengers, called __________, that determine which immune response will be activated. Helper T Cells (T H cells) Image: T cell activation , NIH Third Line of Defense: Cell-mediated Immune Response From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Cytokines Regulatory proteins that act as intracellular signals and are released by certain cells in your body. B cells and Cytotoxic T cells do not respond to antigens unless first signaled by cytokines. Cytokines include: ______________ (ILs): ‘inter’ = between & ‘leukin’ = leukocytes. Signal among leukocytes. ______________ (IFNs): Anti vira l proteins. _________________: Stimulate stem cells to divide. ________________ (TNFs): Macrophages and T cells secrete TNFs to kill tumor cells and regulate immune responses. ________________: Signal leukocytes to rush to the site of inflammation or infection, and activate other leukocytes. Images: Cytokine network , KUGI, Mouse Clone Database From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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B Lymphocytes (B cells ) Activated B-lymphocytes produce either: _______ ______ make antibodies to a pathogen. ________ _______ remember the same pathogen for faster antibody production in future infections. Image: B cell differentiation, Source unknown Third Line of Defense: Humoral Immune Response From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Antigen Presentation & B Cell Receptors (BCRs) Some antibodies are secreted by plasma cells , others are attached to B cell membranes. If attached to the B cell membrane, the antibody is called a ________ _________ (BCR). Surface of each -cell is covered by ~ 500,000 identical B cell receptors. Each BCR is complements a specific _________ __________ that the body may or may not ever encounter (ex. rattlesnake venom proteins ). Your body has billions of B cells, each with BCRs for a different antigenic determinant. Q: How are B cells turned on to begin producing memory cells and plasma cells? Image: B cell receptors, Source unknown Third Line of Defense: Humoral Immune Response From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Humoral Immune Response Steps of the humoral immune response include: Antigen presentation: Antigen presenting cells encounter compatible T H cells that have receptors for those same antigenic determinants. Helpers multiply: Those T H cells proliferate and bind to B cells. B cells activated : Activated T H cell secretes interleukin, activating the B cell so that it quickly multiplies and differentiates. Antibodies produced: Plasma B cells rapidly produce large numbers of antibodies. This high level of activity means that these cells are short-lived. Memory B cells can survive for years, ready to initiate antibody production of that particular antigen is encountered again.
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