49 JP Monferrer Sala Rab ī� ibn Zayd CMR 2 34750 M Fierro � Abd al Ra ḥ m ā n

49 jp monferrer sala rab ī? ibn zayd cmr 2 34750 m

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ongoing, increasingly desperate wars with the Christian kingdoms of the peninsula. 49 J.P. Monferrer Sala, ‘Rab īʿ ibn Zayd’, CMR 2, 347–50; M. Fierro, ʿ Abd al-Ra m ā n III. The first Cordoban caliph , Oxford, 2005. 50 J.P. Monferrer Sala and D. Thomas, ‘Ibn azm’, CMR 3, 134–45; D. Thomas, ‘ Ṣāʿ id al-Andalus ī ’, CMR 3, 146– 9; L. Yarbrough, ‘A Christian Sh īʿī , and other curious confreres. Ibn ʿ Abd al-Barr of Cordoba on getting along with unbelievers’, al-Mas ā q , 30 (2018), 284–303. 51 V. Lagardère, ‘Communautés mozarabes et pouvoir almoravide en 519H/1125 en el-Andalus’, Studia Islamica 67 (1988), 99–120. See also, e.g., D. Serrano Ruano, ‘Ibn Sahl’, CMR 3, 210–3; M. Meouak, ‘Ibn Bass ā m’, CMR 3, 318–22; M. Fierro, ‘al- ur ṭū sh ī ’, CMR 3, 387–96; C. de la Puente, ‘Ibn ʿ Abd ū n al-Ishb ī l ī ’, CMR
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24 The Almoravids have often been compared with their contemporaries in the eastern Islamic lands, the Seljuq Turks, who were also recently Islamized, warlike tribesmen who won control of important Islamic urban centers, paid formal allegiance to the Abbasid caliph, and patronized Sunni ʿ ulam āʾ . The mildly Shi ʿ i B ū yid dynasty which had preceded the Seljuqs in Baghdad had pursued relatively accommodating policies toward Christians and Jews, notwithstanding occasional episodes of violent suppression. 52 Seljuq rule, however, saw more extensive empowerment of Sunni ʿ ulam āʾ as state administrators and ideologues. A key proponent of this change was the vizier Ni ẓā m al-Mulk, a scholar-official from Khur ā s ā n who virtually ruled the Seljuq empire in the late eleventh century. In his Persian mirror for princes, the Siy ā sat n ā mah , Ni ẓā m al- Mulk counsels the ruler to delegate administrative authority to Sunnis from Khur ā s ā n, while dissociating from both Iraqi Muslims, whom he accuses of pro-Ism āʿī l ī sympathies, and Jews and Christians. The ethos of the new Turkic rulers and their Sunni supporters marked a shift toward antipathy. 53 It contrasted with such earlier cases at that of the renowned Sunni jurist Ab ū l- asan al-M ā ward ī (d. 1058), whose patron was a weak Abbasid caliph under Shi ʿ i B ū yid tutelage. In his famous book al-A k ā m al-sul ṭā niyya , al- M ā ward ī had advanced a relatively accommodating vision of non-Muslim life within an Islamic state. 54 Sunni jurists flocked to the madrasa s that the Seljuqs established on a wide scale to teach Islamic law. Ni ẓā m al-Mulk patronized jurists like al-Juwayn ī (d. 1085), who castigated al-M ā ward ī for his accommodating stance. 55 The great Sufi jurist al-Ghaz ā l ī (d. 3, 397–400; R. El Hour, ‘Ab ū Bakr Ibn al- ʿ Arab ī ’, CMR 3, 520–3; D. Serrano Ruano, ‘al-Q āḍī ʿ Iy āḍ ’, CMR 3, 542–8; I. Ferrando, ‘Ibn Quzm ā n’, CMR 3, 620–24. 52 For this period as well as the history of Baghdad’s Christians more generally, see J.-M. Fiey, Chrétiens syriaques sous les Abbassides surtout à Bagdad, 749-1258 , Louvain, 1980.
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