When you reach the end of the list the last 7 items are not replaced so they remain in short-term memory o Can be diminished by performing a distracting task immediately following the encoding phase to cause the last of the presented items to be disrupted from the short-term memory buffer Levels of Processing Model: suggests that memory performance depends on level at which items are encoded Physical/Shallow Level: encoding of physical characteristics o Requires little effort o Poor memory performance Acoustic/Moderate Level: encoding of acoustic characteristics Deeper Level: encoding of semantic characteristics o Requires significant effort o Better memory performance Craik & Lockhart: tested model by direct manipulation of the level at which a subject encodes a bunch of words followed by a sudden recall test o The more you actively organize and understand material to be learned, the better you will remember it o Paying attention to only surface details leads to poorer recall
Encoding Specificity: memory encodes all aspects of specific experiences All aspects can influence memory performance and act as cues Scuba Diver Experiment: asked divers to encode words on land or while underwater o When words were recalled when in a different encoding context, recall was poor o When words were recalled when in the same encoding context, recall was much better False Memory: when an individual recalls a false past experience that is remembered as real As time passes from the initial description of the experience, subjects become more likely to believe the experience is true Fluency: the ease with which an experience is processed Familiar experiences are processed quicker than novel experiences Attribution: a judgement that ties together cause with effect E.g. can make an attribute the processing fluency of the feeling of familiarity of a stranger on a bus which can potentially be tied to many different causes o Perhaps we know them from somewhere o Perhaps they stand out because they have an unusual face False Fame Effect: the finding that subjects who read a list of both newly learned and famous names will incorrectly identify some novel names as famous after a 24- hour delay Due to increased processing fluency, the novel names would seem familiar to the participant, who would then incorrectly assume that the names were famous Time between exposure and recall affects our attributions to fluency LECTURE Memory is a reconstructive process o Becomes less accurate over time Attentional processes decide what we bring in to our mind and what we remember Successive Processes of Memory: If any one of these processes fail, memory will fail Encoding: information is converted for storage Storage: information is retained in memory Retrieval: information is recovered from memory when needed o Retrieval Cues: a key piece of information that has the potential to activate a memory in full Storage of Memory is Vulnerable to Retention Error By misinformation, we can change the way we remember something Top down processing can lead to false memory
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- Winter '14
- Classical Conditioning, Ivan Pavlov