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NGOs in Los Angeles, Shih provides an in-depth description and analysis of what she calls "vigilante rescue" efforts. While the assumptions of these anti-trafficking NGOs mirror those of federally funded anti-trafficking sweeps and stings, these groups do not collaborate with federal orlocal policing agents.Shih finds distinct gendered and racialized patterns in the work of these organizations, withmany white college age men eager to "rescue" young women of Asian descent, with both organizations deploying tactics of racial profiling to "identify those in need of rescue and those whomay be perpetrators of trafficking" (Shih 2016, this issue). Shih argues that these "vigilante rescue" efforts represent a new form of neoliberal governance, bringing non-state actors in to"enforce and extend state goals of surveillance and policing of immigrants and sex workers"(Shih 2016, this issue).This special cluster concludes with Crystal A. Jackson's article, "Framing Sex Worker Rights:How U.S. Sex Worker Rights Activists Perceive and Respond to Mainstream Anti-Sex TraffickingAdvocacy." Jackson's ethnographic research with sex worker advocacy networks in the UnitedStates documents how the anti-trafficking narrative has affected the sex worker rights movement.Jackson describes both the importance and difficulty of articulating sex worker positive narratives in a contemporary moment of heightened surveillance and criminalization of everythingpertaining to commercial sex. While sex worker activists also wish to fight coercion and trafficking in the sex industry, when they do not acknowledge themselves as victims, anti-traffickingactivists and state actors label them criminals, and their work on behalf of actual victims is at bestmarginalized, and at worst thwarted. Jackson's article adds to scholarly understandings of framing battles within social movements, and illustrates how labor rights frames struggle as counterstories in a neoliberal political climate.ConclusionThe evidence in these three sociological studies run counter to dominant discourses abowork and human trafficking. Because sociologists are often at the forefront of advocatievidence-based policies, we hope that these essays will assist sociologists in their wThis content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Sun, 16 Feb 2020 01:22:39 UTCAll use subject to
22Sociological Perspectives 59(1)teachers, scholars, and public advocates. Finally, we urge policy makers and activists who areconcerned about individuals in the sex trade to heed these and other peer reviewed empiricalstudies and push for evidence-based policies on sex work and human trafficking.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank the editors of Sociological Perspectives, Robert O'Brien and James Elliot,for their thoughtfulness, constructive support, and courage in hosting the first ever special cluster of articlesin Sociological Perspectives.