# Characterizes a substance however any procedure used

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characterizes a substance - However, any procedure used to determine a substance’s refractive index must be performed under carefully controlled temperature and lighting conditions because the refractive index of a substance varies with its temperature and the wavelength of light passing through it. When a transparent solid is immersed in a liquid with a similar refractive index, light is not refracted as it passes from the liquid into the solid. Crystalline solid is a solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement Atoms is the smallest unit of an element, which is not divisible by ordinary chemical means; atoms are made up of electrons, protons, neutrons plus other subatomic particles Amorphous solid is a solid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in random or disordered positions; there is no regular order in amorphous solids Normally, we expect a solid or a liquid to exhibit only one refractive index value for each wavelength of light; however, many crystalline solids have two refractive indices whose values depend in part on the direction in which the light enters the crystal with respect to the crystal axis. Crystalline solids have definite geometric forms because of the orderly arrangement of the fundamental particle of a solid, that atom. Most crystals, excluding those that have cubic configurations, refract a beam of light into two different light ray components. This phenomenon, known as double refraction, can be observed by studying the behavior of the crystal calcite. Birefringence is a difference in the two indices of refraction exhibited by most crystalline materials Dispersion is the separation of light into its component’s wavelengths - This observation demonstrates that visible white light is not homogeneous but is actually composed of many different colors. - Each color component of light, on passing through the glass, is slowed to a speed slightly different from those of the others, causing each component to bend at a different angle as it emerges from the prism - Dispersion thus separates light into its component wavelengths and demonstrates that glass had a slightly different index of refraction for each wavelength of light passing through it. Visible light is the colored light ranging from red to violet in the electromagnetic spectrum

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- This phenomenon demonstrates that white light is not homogenous but is actually composed of a range of colors that extends from red through violet. - Ex. When light passes through a red glass, the glass absorbs all the component colors of light except red, which passes through or is transmitted by the glass One can determine the color of an opaque object by observing its ability to absorb some of the component colors of light while reflecting other back to the eye. Scientists have long recognized this phenomenon and have learned to characterize different chemical substances by the type and quantity of light they absorb Theory of Light
• Fall '19
• Light, Wavelength, refractive index

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