SOLUTION STRATEGIES Algorithms: step-by-step formulas or procedures for solving problems. Mental Set: tendency to continue to use problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past, even if better solutions are available. Eureka Insights (Insight Solutions): solutions that occur with a flash of insight. Thinking Outside the Box: requires you to break free of self-imposed conceptual constraints and think about a problem differently in order to solve it. OBSTACLES TO SOLUTIONS Fixation: inability to break out of a particular mind-set in order to think about a problem from a fresh perspective. Prevents many people from seeing possible solutions. “When you can’t break out of the box.” Functional Fixedness: our tendency to be blind to unusual uses of common everyday things or procedures. WHAT IS CREATIVITY? Creativity: thought or behaviour that is both novel-original and useful or adaptive. TESTS OF CREATIVITY
Torrance Test: you have a bunch of items, some can be drawn, where you are given an object and are asked to draw additions to it and are asked to made addition to it. Remote Associates Test: find a word that serves as a link between three words. If you’re given a word, you think of words that are related to it. COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN CREATIVE THINKING Ideational Fluency: ability to produce many ideas. Central to creative thought. Highly creative people usually come up with more ideas for a given problem than less creative people do. Flexibility of Thought: coming up with many different categories of ideas and think of other responses (approaches) besides the obvious one. Gauged by the number of categories of response a person offers. Originality: thinking of unusual, uncommon and novel ideas. CREATIVITY & THE BRAIN Frontal Lobe Activity: correlated with creativity scores as well as strategizing and problem solving. Creative people actually show more balance between hemispheres, as balanced thinking tends to solve problems more quickly. Less creative people tend to use the left side of their brain. They are eliminating possible solutions that they can come up with. Selective Presentation to Right Hemisphere: better creative problem solving. A divided perception task can be used to stop this, you can deliver the information to the left visual field so that it goes to the right part of the brain first, increases right brain activity, causing the left side of the brain to learn from the right side. People who come up with creative ideas and solutions tend to have more highly myelinated areas of the brain. GENIUS, INTELLIGENCE, & CREATIVITY Genius: high intelligence and creative accomplishments. Complex Relationship Between IQ & Creativity: depends on the aspect of creativity. STUDYING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Developmental Psychology: study of age related changes in thoughts and behaviours across the life span in three major domains: physical (skill and motor learning), cognitive (development of thought), and social-emotional.
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- Fall '13