36. Slater Family Mills37. Lowell Mills - Francis Cabot Lowell invented the first factory system "where people and machines were all under one roof." Also, a series of mills and factories were built along the Merrimack Riverby the Boston Manufacturing Company, an organization founded in years prior by the man for whom the resulting city was named. Construction began in 1821, and the mills were at their peak roughly twenty years later. For the first time in the United States these mills combined the textile processes of spinning and weaving under one roof, essentially eliminating the "putting-out" system in favor of mass production of high-quality cloth. The workforce at these factories was three-quarters wo-men. This workforce of thousands came from struggling farms willing to put their daugh-ters to work to bring in extra income. The typical girl was young, white, unmarried, between 15 and 30 years of age, and sometimes as young as seven years of age. They were neither homeless nor of aristocracy; and from a farm that would benefit from extra income. Most Lowell girls spent the majority of their income home for the benefit of their menfolk. Many believe that the women working at this mill were deprived of many rights. The long work days for little pay showed wage differentials between men and women. The Lowell women worked at the mills only until they were married. The Lowell System, as it was called, was impacted by economic instability and by immigration. A minor de-pression in 1834 led to a sharp reduction in wages, which in turn produced organization by the female workers and two of the earliest examples of a successful strike. A feature of such organization was the magazines and newsletters put out by the girls, the most famous of which was the Lowell Offering. Then later, when the Panic of 1837necessit-ated a true drop in wages, many Lowell girls were replaced by the cheaper Irish “dames,” or “Aristocrats.” By 1850 the majority of workers at Lowell factories were poor immigrants. One result of this large scale laying-off was that now there were many adult, single women in society, who were used to earning their own money. It was only sensible that they seek other positions (teaching, etc.) in which to make money; and by doing so they further contributed to the birth of the working woman.38. Piece work - Piece work(orpiecework) is any type ofemploymentin which aworkeris paid a fixedpiece ratefor each unit produced or action performedregardless of time. Piece work is a form of performance-related pay39. Outwork (32) a system of manufacturing, also known as putting out, used .