Î in 1945 the founders of the united nations

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ÎIn 1945 the founders of the United Nationsbelieved that it would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible.ÎThe Cold War years from 1945 to 1991were a huge challenge for the organisation as they were expected to deal with multiple crises.ÎThe term ‘the American Century’is used to describe the period after 1945 in which America’s power and dominance over other nations began to emerge.ÎThe division of Germany in 1945became the centrepiece of ideological tension and conflict between the Soviet Union and the west.ÎThe collapse of the Berlin Wallmarked the end of the Cold War. 86
Change in the Modern World: Option DSee Year 12 Modern History p. 297THE CHANGING WORLD ORDER 1945-2011The collapse of the USSR and the nature of post-Soviet societies 1ÎThe collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, its dissolution and the break-up into successor states that emerged after the 70-year rule of communism, occurred just two years after the fall of the Berlin Wall.ÎThere are many reasons for the collapse. These include:the failure of central planningthe denial of free-market economic forcesthe financial burden of Soviet satellite statesthe failure of the Brezhnev Doctrine (giving aid to regimes in the third world that fit in with Soviet ideology)the collapse in oil prices which meant that as an oil producer the Soviet Union was hit hard the strain of the arms race and space race on the Soviet economy. 87
Change in the Modern World: Option DSee Year 12 Modern History p. 297THE CHANGING WORLD ORDER 1945-2011The collapse of the USSR and the nature of post-Soviet societies 2ÎWhen Mikhail Gorbachev entered office in March 1985he began to take Soviet foreign policy in a new direction.ÎGorbachev was determined to withdraw the Soviet Union from a costly arms racethat would bankrupt the country.ÎGorbachev abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrineand announced that he would not interfere with the internal affairs of Eastern Europe.ÎThe USSR dissolved in 1991.ÎThis momentous event changed the world’s geopolitical balanceand put an end to a superpower with resources that were the equal to more than a dozen countries combined. 88
Change in the Modern World: Option CSee Year 12 Modern History p. 297THE CHANGING WORLD ORDER 1945-2011The collapse of the USSR and the nature of post-Soviet societies 3ÎVladimir Putin became acting president of the Russian Federation in 1999and his rule continues today. Putin:signed into law liberal economic reforms such as a flat income tax of 13%reduced profits taxintroduced new land and civil codesmoved quickly to remove power from Russian oligarchsreturned to the policy of expansionism of the former Soviet UnionPutin has consistently made decisions to further consolidate his power. For example, in 2004 he signed a law allowing the president to appoint regional governors.

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