Euro americans eleven of them by collectors of the

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Euro-Americans, eleven of them by collectors of the Foreign Miners' Tax. The committee concluded in its repon, "It is a well known fact that there has been a wholesale system of wrong and outrage practised upon the Chinese population of this state, which would disgrace the most barbarous nation upon earth." 11 The first documented instance of a spontaneous outbreak against a Chinese community took place in Los Angeles in 1871. 12 According to William Locklear, troubles began when two factions within Chinatown, then located in so-called Nigger Alley, fought with each other over possession of a Chinese woman. In the early evening of 24 October, a police officer in the vicinity heard shooting and went to investigate. As he neared the Chinese quarters, a shot was fired at him, whereupon he called for help. A large crowd soon gathered. The Chinese, meanwhile, scurried for safety inside their dwellings.'Bne man in the crowd, brandishing a six-shooter and followed by several others, climbed to the roof of an adobe building in which a number of Chinese were hiding. They cut holes through the walls and started firing inside. Chinese attempting to flee were shot down in cold blood. Others were dragged along the street, then hanged. The mob battered down buildings, hauled out the terrified Chi- nese, beat and kicked each one before lynching him, and looted the Chinese houses in search of gold and other valuables. A number of impatient men cut off the fingers of a Chinese herbalist in order to take the rings he wore. By the Hostility and Conflict 49 time the sheriff arrived with 25 deputized volunteers at 9:30 P.M. to quell the riot, the mob had begun to disperse. The sheriff found 15 Chinese hanged, 4 shot, and 2 wounded. Though 8 men were convicted and sent to jail for the crimes, all were released a year later. In early 1877 there was an outbreak of anti-Chinese violence in Chico, a small town in the Sacramento Valley, and a number ofits surrounding commu- nities. First, a soap factory owned by John Bidwell, a pioneer landowner and employer of Chinese, was burned. Next, arsonists set fire to the barn of a widow who had leased part of her farm to Chinese, killing 6 of her horses. Flames also consumed the shack in which the Chinese tenants lived. Several weeks later, the home of some Chinese in the neighboring town of Nord and a Chinese laundry in Chico Creek were set aflame. Arsonists also attempted unsuccessfully to burn Chico's entire Chinatown. This spate of violence culmi- nated in the murder of four Chinese (whom the Euro-American intruders tied up, doused with kerosene, and set on fire) and the wounding of two others who managed to escape. During the trial of the suspects arrested for the crime, it was revealed that the perpetrators were members of a Laborers' Union, an offshoot of the Order of Caucasians, a white supremacist organization. Though the suspects were convicted and sentenced, all were released on parole long before their sentences were up.
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Christopher Reinemann
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