Cardinals and Councils □ Curia and Camera □ Liberty (Simony, Celibacy, Investiture, Crusade) The "Holy Roman" Church laid claim to all Christians ○ The "Holy Roman" Empire and the "Holy Roman" Church • Universal Monarchy f#[email protected] Middle Ages Wednesday, November 5, 2014 8:54 AM HY 101 Page 72
The Pope and his Bishops constituted a court in both the social and legal senses – But also a social and political gathering Curia: a court, heard legal cases, settled disputes ◊ The Church collected tithes and tributes from other churches and powerful figures Camera: the financial arm of the church ◊ To achieve their claims to liberty, developed Curia and Camera Curia and Camera □ Contexts: Cities, Guilds • Is it morally right for a Christian to make a profit in a time of famine by charging another Christian for grains ◊ There were new ethical and moral dilemmas about the place of merchants in a society The way people made money was viewed as being dirty, filthy □ Disputes over the profits of a given industry What are the rights of merchants and kings in a given dispute ○ New demands, legal and moral dilemmas: Rights, contracts, money and markets • They had (the Muslims) translated Aristotle's treatises into Arabic Christian peoples began to realize that the Muslim invaders were very well educated ○ New Challenges: Islam; Aristotle and logic • Education and Society c. 1200 Quality control □ Who was allowed in □ How the apprentices studied □ These guilds were rigorous in: In many of these guilds, there was a very distinct difference between the Masters (Magister) and the Apprentices ○ Guild Structure (Magister) • Gaining knowledge and truth, or Scientia ◊ You tried to understand their authority and learn from it All truths, and everything that was true within these ancient authorities could not be discounted □ The Bible, Augustine (the Caesars), Aristotle There was a very serious sense of the weight of tradition ○ Authority and Scientia • People would often begin with the Arts Faculties, and work their way up to the 'harder' faculties □ Basic geometry □ Grammar The overwhelmingly popular faculty within the Arts The works of Aristotle □ Logic Rhetoric Mathematics □ Geometry □ Astrology □ Music □ the Quadrivian: Arts: ○ Theology Faculties: Arts; Theology, Law and Medicine • The University HY 101 Page 73
Core text, the Bible The works of Peter Lombar, who arranged passages of the Bible to expose contradictions Theology ○ Worked from actual cases Law ○ The works of Gaelan Medicine ○ You were expected to master these, inside and out □ In all of these faculties, there was often one core text The goal was to Master the Authority, to become a master of a given Authority ○ "Scholastic" Method • Upon completing your faculties (in modern terms, receiving a doctorate) you now possessed incredibly rare skills ○ A certain fame accompanied becoming a scholar of that caliber □ Lawyers, Physicians, Accountants Most people dropped out of their Faculties, but those who made it through become ○ Careers • Philosophy, the Arts ○ Oxford • Theology ○ Paris • Law ○ Bologna •
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