T linking to claim the first cousin to claiming value

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--"~'-''"'''~' -_.-~"--~ t~~:._. Linking to Claim The first cousin to claiming value by means of an issue already on the table is to bring in new issues for the same purpose. When the Soviet Union had an especially bad grain harvest in 1975, Henry Kissinger sought to link continued U .S. grain sales to good Soviet behavior in the Middle East as well as to a price cut on Soviet oil that would hurt OPEe. Such classic linkage ploys have a number of variants. Instead of negotiating directly over the extent of land development, an oppos-
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( laiming Value 139 ing group can link a variety of other issues to the process: suits over I he standards required of an environmentaI impact statement, zoning laws, endangered species protections, and the like. If deveIopment costs can be sufficientIy increased by switching issues this way, the whoIe project may be derailed. A tacticaI shift to a matter where one has acknowledgedexpertise canbeparticuhrly'éffectlve: For exampie, consider an author nego- I iati~gto'get -hfs--'pubI1iher to use and bear the cost of expensive non- standard graphics in his forthcoming book. The author is ready with arguments about cost effectiveness and may be secretIy prepared to concede on his royalty rateo Yet, the author might be compIeteIy sty- mied when the publisher says, "You want this to be recognized as a high-quality book, don't you? Can you think of any classy book that has this kind of graphics? People won't recognize the quality of your book." True or not, the publisher has gotten his way on the con- tested issue. Sorne subordinates are very 10yaI and have strong conceptions of their roles. When trying to induce such a person to do an unpIeasant job, sorne managers get their way by avoiding discussions on the mer- its of the task in question and linking other interests. For example, there may be appeaIs to the appropriate superior-subordinate reIa- tionship, the company's reliance on the person, and IoyaIty. Managers and leaders can attempt to instill in others a deep psy- chologicaI identification, that is, to want what the leader do es simply because they want to be like him. Merely by making his wishes known, such an admired manager sometimes seems to transform conflict into pure shared interest. As a result, managers sometimes invest tremendous energy in cultivating identification, by Ietting it be known that they have access to and influence upon important peo- pIe, by adopting the trappings of power, and by sheer force of per- sonality. Whether the resuIt of this is good for the organization or not, it certainly makes it easier for the manager's preferences to pre- vail. In short, otherwise separate issues and interests can be linked to claimv~I~e. E~en-shared interests in the reIationship, loyalty, norm; offaiiness and appropriate behavior, as well as broader common goaIs and visions, can ~e~andy for this purpose.
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