In addition what can two spirit critiques tell us

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In addition, what can Two-Spirit critiques tell us about nationhood, diaspora, colo- nization, and decolonization? What do they have to say about Native national- isms, treaty rights, citizenship, and noncitizenship? What can they tell us about the boarding/residential schools, biopiracy, the Allotment Act, the Removal Act, the Relocation Act, the Reorganization Act, and the Indian Act? How can they inform our understandings of the roles of misogyny, homophobia, transphobia, and heterosexism in colonization? What do they have to say about Native language res- toration, traditional knowledge, and sustainability? What do Two-Spirit critiques teach us about survival, resistance, and continuance? Two-Spirit critiques are part of ongoing weavings to resist colonialism. “On our separate, yet communal journeys,” Brant tells us, “we have learned that a hege- monic gay and lesbian movement cannot encompass our complicated history — history that involves so much loss. Nor can a hegemonic gay and lesbian movement give us tools to heal our broken Nations. But our strength as a family not only gives tools, it helps make tools.” 60 Two-Spirit critiques are a making that asks all of our disciplines and movements to formulate analyses that pay attention to the current colonial occupation of Native lands and nations and the way Two-Spirit bodies and identities work to disrupt colonial projects. 61 By doubleweaving splints from queer studies and Native studies, Two-Spirit critiques can aid in the resistance struggles of Native communities and help create theories and movements that are inclusive and responsive to Native Two-Spirit/GLBTQ people. Notes Wado to my ancestors for getting me here alive. Wado to the People of the Three Fires, the Tawakoni, and the Tonkawa Nations whose lands this essay was written on. Wado to the editors, the outside reviewers, and to Lisa Tatonetti for their comments and feedback on earlier versions of this essay. Wado to all of the Native Two-Spirit and queer folks whose conversations, art, and activism deeply inform my work. 1. My discussion in this essay focuses on Native Two-Spirit/GLBTQ politics in the United States and Canada, and — because of my own geographic and political locations — mostly the former. 2. Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples (New York: Zed, 1999), 24. 3. Joy Harjo and Poetic Justice, “A Postcolonial Tale,” in Letter from the End of the Twentieth Century (compact disc). Silver Wave Records, SD 914, 1997. Craig Womack, in writing about Harjo’s work, has likewise talked about the centrality of imagination
88 GLQ: A JOURNAL OF LESBIAN AND GAY STUDIES in decolonial processes. He writes, “The process of decolonizing one’s mind, a first step before one can gain a political consciousness and engage oneself in activism, has to begin with imagining some alternative” ( Red on Red: Native American Literary Separatism [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999], 230).

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