Without fathers are twice as likely to end up in jail

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without fathers are twice as likely to end up in jail as those who come from traditional two-parent families...those boys whose fathers were absent from the household had double the odds of being incarcerated -- even when other factors such as race, income, parent education and urban residence were held constant." (p. 369-397) In contrast, children with increased interactions with his or her biological father are less likely to be involved in delinquency or crime (Coley and Medeiros, 2007). Moreover, fatherless children are more likely to use illicit substances as adolescents (Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta, Moore, Capps, & Zaff, 2004). In particular, African American males who have strong relationships with their fathers have higher grade point averages and school attendance. (Bryant, 2003). Theory—There are deep psychological consequences in children who grow up without a consistent father, the effects of which persist into adulthood: fathers offer a critical role in child development. In my practice of assessment, I might ask, “Tell me about your relationship with your father. How do you recall interactions with him? How do you think his absence affected your upbringing and shaped your sense of self?” Bronte-Tinkew, J., Moore, K. A., Capps, R. C., & Zaff, J. (2004). The influence of father involvement on youth risk behaviors among adolescents: A comparison of native-born and immigrant families. Social Science Research, 35, 181-209.
Bryant, A. L. (2003). Role models and psychosocial outcomes among African-American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 36- 87. Coley, R. L., & Medeiros, B. L. (2007). Reciprocal longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement and adolescent delinquency. Child Development, 78, 132-147. Harper, Cynthia & Mclanahan, Sara. (2004). Father Absence and Youth Incarceration. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 14. 369 - 397. 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2004.00079.x. MODULE 3, DISCUSSION 1 Larry E. Davis (2015) explains the Theory of cognitive dissonance as an experience of “mental stress, aptly described as cognitive dissonance, when their attitudes-that is, what they think and believe- are at odds with how they behave.” (p. 39) He parallels this idea with the dissonance of the nation’s ideals of justice and equality versus the continuous perpetuation of individual and systematic racism and racial bias. I was reminded of our Diangelo (2018) reading, which mentioned Thomas Jefferson had incited scientists to prove black people were physically inferior. (p 6) This radical justification of racial disparities is still woven into our culture today. So often our brains are insistent on proving our own previous conceptions, as not to disrupt the bedrock of our daily lives, rather than seeking the Truth. I was home in Alabama this past week, where my mom and I got in several debates over “white privilege”. She argued that while she does agree racial disparities abound, she resents the word “privilege” because it insinuates she (a white person) needs to be “knocked down a peg”. I argued that it is more prudent to focus on elevating the disenfranchised so that we all have equal opportunities and voices,

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