Pine pinus jack lodgepole scots fir abies balsam

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Pine (pinus) – Jack, Lodgepole, Scots - Fir (abies) – Balsam Boreal Soils - Conifers create acidic soils - Leach tannins and other acid - Iron and other metals and minerals are leached from upper soil horizons to lower horizons (podzoliation) - The upper layer is thus sandy in texture, and can be an ash colour – fittingly many boreal soils are called podzols Resistant to Decay = Lots of Carbon and Limited nutrients - Low temperatures = slow decomposition - Needles high in lignin = slow decomposition - Boreal stores enormous quantities of carbon – maybe more than temperate and tropical forests combined – much of it in peatland Water-logged Soils and Perpetual Shading - Shade from trees minimizes evaporation – wet soils and can be waterlogged all year – limits nutrient cycling relative to southern forests Takeaways - Seen a variety of ways, species adapt to different environments - The same species can adapt to different environments - We can see trends in the way that plants adapt across different temperature and moisture regimes - Acclimation and adaptation differ based on their time scales the speed of change and response is the key - The composition and phenology of species in a given population or community has been shaped by the environment and other organisms around them Terms: haliophyte, sciophyte, obligate heliophyte and sciophyte, facultative heliophyte and sciophyte, photoperiodism, poikilotherm, xerophyte, sclerophyllous leaf, mesophyte, hydrophyte, phloem, xylem, acclimation, adaptation, coniferous tree, deciduous tree Concepts to explain - How light, temperature and moisture controls plant growth, adaptation and acclimation - Some terms used to describe plants that have specific tolerance for each of those - Some ways evapotranspiration is affected and some ways that water demand is affected - Main differences between deciduous and coniferous trees - How the differences in their structures influence the way they function - How these functions make them best adapted for particular environmental conditions - Some characteristics of boreal forests and how they influence the types of trees that grow there LECTURE 13 – Adaptations – Animals
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Animals and Temperature - The stability of body temperature - Poikilothermy - Homeothermy - The source of body heat - Ectothermy - Endothermy Fish as ectotherms Antarctic icefish – remains active at body temperatures of -1.9 degrees Desert pupfish – heat tolerant – was endemic to outflows of a pair of hot springs in Mojave desert, extinct ~1970 – modifications and the introduction of nan-native species Eurythermic: species that can’t tolerate a wide range of temperatures Stenothermic: species with restricted temperature ranges - Can apply to many abiotic and some biotic factors - Steno – narrow - Eury – wide Body Temperature vs metabolic rate - How endotherms stay warm Bergmann’s Rule – Larger body since in colder climates – large bodies have smaller surface area to volume ratios Confirmation of his rule in New World birds – show winter temperatures drive pattern –
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