Binary covalent compound a a b b nonmetallic elements

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Binary covalent compound A a B b Nonmetallic elements Subscripts (may be absent) Follow these steps to write the names for binary covalent compounds. If the subscript for the first element is greater than one, indicate the identity of the subscript using prefixes from Table 3.3. We do not write mono‑ at the beginning of a compound’s name (see Example 3.4). Example: We start the name for N 2 O 3 with di‑ . Attach the selected prefix to the name of the first element in the formula. If no prefix is to be used, begin with the name of the first element. Example: We indicate the N 2 portion of N 2 O 3 with dinitrogen . Select a prefix to identify the subscript for the second element (even if its subscript is understood to be one). Leave the a off the end of the prefixes that end in a and the o off of mono‑ if they are placed in front of an element whose name begins with a vowel (oxygen or iodine). Example: The name of N 2 O 3 grows to dinitrogen tri‑. Write the root of the name of the second element in the formula as shown in Table 3.4 on the next page. Example: The name of N 2 O 3 becomes dinitrogen triox‑. Add ‑ide to the end of the name. Example: The name of N 2 O 3 is dinitrogen trioxide. Number of atoms Prefix Number of atoms Prefix 1 mon(o) 6 hex(a) 2 di 7 hept(a) 3 tri 8 oct(a) 4 tetr(a) 9 non(a) 5 pent(a) 10 dec(a) Table 3.3 Prefixes Used in the Names of Binary Covalent Compounds O BJECTIVE 24 O BJECTIVE 28 O BJECTIVE 25
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Element Root Element Root Element Root Element Root C carb N nitr O ox F fluor P phosph S sulf Cl chlor Se selen Br brom I iod Table 3.4 Roots for Names of the Nonmetal Elements O BJECTIVE 26 E XAMPLE 3.4 - N AMING B INARY C OVALENT C OMPOUNDS Write the names that correspond to the formulas (a) N 2 O 5 , (b) NO 2 , and (c) NO. Solution These formulas are in the form of A a B b , where A and B represent symbols for nonmetallic elements, so they are binary covalent compounds. a. The first subscript in N 2 O 5 is 2, so the first prefix is di . The first symbol, N, represents nitrogen, so the name for N 2 O 5 begins with dinitrogen . The second subscript is 5, and the second symbol, O, represents oxygen. Therefore, the prefix pent combines with the root of oxygen, ox , and the usual ending, ide , to give pentoxide for the second part of the name. N 2 O 5 is dinitrogen pentoxide . Notice that the a is left off penta , because the root ox begins with a vowel. b. NO 2 is nitrogen dioxide . We leave mono off the first part of the name. c. NO is nitrogen monoxide . We leave mono off the first part of the name, but we start the second part of the name with mon . The o in mono is left off before the root ox . O BJECTIVE 28 E XERCISE 3.4 - N AMING OF B INARY C OVALENT C OMPOUNDS Write names that correspond to the following formulas: (a) P 2 O 5 , (b) PCl 3 , (c) CO, (d) H 2 S, and (e) NH 3 . Hydrogen atoms always form one covalent bond, and halogen atoms (group 17 or 7A) usually form one bond. Thus hydrogen reacts with halogens to form compounds with the general formula of HX, with the X representing the halogen. Because this is common knowledge among scientists and science students, these compounds are often named without prefixes. For example, HF can be named hydrogen fluoride or
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  • Fall '06
  • Mark
  • Atom, atoms, Chemical bond

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