Effects of testosterone are mediated through estrogen

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Effects of testosterone are mediated through estrogen receptor Aromatase. Estrogen receptor Estrogen receptor activation alters gene expression to inhibit programmed cell death “apoptosis”. Role in primates is less clear…
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What does E do? Activates both Membrane bound And cytosolic Receptors
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Protection against SDN-POA Masculinization in females . In rodents females are exposed to high estrogens during development. Alpha-feto-protein binds circulating estrogens in rodents. Primate AFP does not bind estrogen; perhaps other proteins??? Role of aromatization in primates is unclear.
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Figure 1 Estrogen Masculinizes Brain and Behavior (Top) The perinatal surge of testosterone in genetically male mice results in the development of male-type brain morphology. <ce:cross-ref refid="bib10"> Wu et al. (2009)</ce:cross-ref> report t... Khatuna Gagnidze , Donald W. Pfaff Sex on the Brain Cell Volume 139, Issue 1 2009 19 - 21
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Role of Steroids in Maintenance of Sexual Dimorphisms in the Brain The SDN of the hypothalamus Larger in males Unaltered by adult castration The Medial amygdala posterior dorsal nucleus is larger in males sensitive to castration. There are multiple mechanisms involved in different brain dimorphisms.
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Summary of Mechanisms Underlying Sexual Dimorophisms in the Nervous System. Spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosous (SBN) produced indirectly by masculinization of genitalia (requires androgen receptor stimulation) during perinatal development. Sexually-dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) – produced by estrogen-receptor mediated reduction of apoptosis during perinatal development. Medial amygdala posterior dorsal (MeApd) – produce by estrogen-receptor stimulation that must be maintained throughout life.
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Human SDN SDN is larger in adult males than in adult females because females loose neurons in SDN prior to puberty (i.e.
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