Hussein mcmahon correspondence 1915 1916 exchange of

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Hussein - McMahon Correspondence (1915-1916) Exchange of letters regarding the possibility of Sherif Hussein to launch an Arab revolt against the Empire. Britain, in return, would recognize an independent Arab state under his leadership. Hussein’s demands: The Arab state was to include the Arabian Peninsula, the provinces of Greater Syria and the provinces of Iraq. Main point of conflict was the Syrian coast. The status of Palestine was not clear. Hussein wanted all Arab countries but this Britain didn’t promise. The result: Arab Revolt 1916-1918 Revolt started under Faisal in Mecca and Medina 1918 Faisal entered Damascus and declared himself ruler of Syria Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
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Agreement on the future areas of influence between Britain and France France: Syria & Lebanon Britain: Basra, Baghdad, indirect influence from Gaza to Kirkuk Palestine would be under international administration Acknowledgement of an Arab state: Confederation of states located between French and British control Balfour Declaration 1917 Letter by James Balfour to Lord Rothschild “views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” Vague but of great importance Contradictions and Effects Acknowledgement of Arab political rights, yet no independent Arab state as promised in the McMahon correspondence. The Sykes-Picot agreement shows that Britain and France maintained imperialist interests and had no wish to establish an independent Arab state as promised in the McMahon correspondence. The status of Palestine is not clear Conflict between Zionism and Arab National Movements 3. Post-WWI Agreements On October 30, 1918, The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Triple Entente. This ended the war in the Middle East. The war ended with the British occupying the territory that was to become Iraq, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. With the Ottoman Empire destroyed, Russia paralyzed by foreign intervention and civil war, and French influence limited somewhat by their minor military role in the Middle East, Britain's military success made her the dominant power in the region . The resulting settlement, which fostered an instability that continues to be a source of conflict today, generated much controversy at the time and has continued to do so ever since. San Remo conference, April 1920: Division of the mandates between Britain and France Mandate: A legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of states defeated in World War I to the League of Nations. It was a temporary and limited form of administration, and the mandatory powers had the responsibility to prepare the states for self-government. Britain received the mandates over the provinces of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul (which became Iraq), Palestine, and later gained direct influence over Trans Jordan. France received the mandates over Syria and Lebanon.
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