Negative reinforcement occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a

Negative reinforcement occurs when an unwanted

This preview shows page 43 - 47 out of 104 pages.

Negative reinforcement occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior. Two contingencies used to decrease undesired behaviors: Punishment occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior. Extinction occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
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MGMT 363 ‐ Wesson 44 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement is the simplest schedule of reinforcement and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior. Fixed interval schedule is where workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time, and the length of time between reinforcement periods stays the same. Schedules of Reinforcement, Cont’d Variable interval schedules are designed to reinforce behavior at more random points in time. Fixed ratio schedules reinforce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited. Variable ratio schedules reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors. Learning Through Observation Social learning theory argues that people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others. Behavioral modeling happens when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior.
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MGMT 363 ‐ Wesson 45 Goal Orientation Learning orientation ‐ where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence. View failure in positive terms—as a means of increasing knowledge and skills in the long run. Performance‐prove orientation focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them. Performance‐avoid orientation focus on demonstrating competence so that others will not think poorly of them. Methods of Decision Making Programmed decisions are decisions that become somewhat automatic because a person’s knowledge allows him or her to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken. Intuition can be described as emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, nonconscious, and holistic associations. Intuitive decision making is perhaps never more important than it is during a crisis. A crisis situation Methods of Decision Making, Cont’d When a situation arises that is new, complex and not recognized, it calls for a nonprogrammed decision on the part of the employee. As employees move up the corporate ladder, a larger percentage of their decisions become less and less programmed. Rational decision‐making model offers a step‐by‐step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives.
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MGMT 363 ‐ Wesson 46 Decision‐Making Problems Limited Information Bounded rationality is the notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision.
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