forcommentsondraftsofthis article.Correspondence concerning this article shouldbeaddressedtoCraigA.Anderson,who is now at theDepartmentofPsychology,W112Lagomar-cino Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50014,or toKarenE.Dill,DepartmentofPsychology, Lenoir-Rhyne College,P.O. Box7335, Hick-ory, North Carolina 28603. Electronic mailmay besenttoCraigA.Andersonat[email protected]or toKarenE.Dillat[email protected]1994).Therearegood theoretical reasonstoexpect that violentvideo games will have similar,andpossibly larger, effectsonaggression.Theempirical literatureon theeffectsofexposuretovideo game violenceissparse, however,inpart becauseof itsrelatively recent emergenceinmodernU.S.society. About25yearsago,when video games first appeared, popular games weresimpleandapparently harmless.In the1970s, Atari introducedagame called Pong that wasasimple video versionofthe game pingpong.In the1980s, arcade games like Pac-Man became dominant.In Pac-Man,ayelloworbwithamouth raced aroundthescreenchompingupghostsandgoblins.Atthis point, some eyebrowswere raised questioning whether young people should play such"violent" games.In the1990sthefaceofvideo games changeddramatically.Themost popular video gameof 1993 wasMortalKombat (Elmer-Dewitt, 1993). This game features realisticallyrendered humanoid characters engaginginbattle.As thenameofthe game implies,thegoalofthe playerinMortal Kombat istokillany opponenthefaces. Unfortunately, such violent gamesnowdominatethemarket. Dietz (1998) sampled33popular SegaandNintendo gamesandfound that nearly80% of thegames wereviolentinnature. Interestingly,shealso found that 21%ofthesegames portrayed violence towards women.The researchtodateonvideo game effectsissparseandweakinanumberofways.Indeed,onereviewer(andmany video gamecreators)hasespousedthebelief that "video game playingmay bea useful meansofcoping with pent-upandaggressive energies"(Emes,1997, p. 413). In brief,whatisneededisbasic theory-guided researchon theeffectsofplaying violent video games.Such research would also contributeto thefield's understandingofmedia violence effectsingeneral.THEORETICAL APPROACHGeneral Affective Aggression Model (GAAM): Short-TermEffectsofVideo Game ViolenceandAggressive PersonalityGAAM:OverviewThereareseveral reasonsforexpecting exposuretoviolentvideo gamestoincrease aggressive behaviorinboththeshortrun772
VIDEO GAME VIOLENCE AND TRAIT AGGRESSIVENESS773(i.e.,within 20 minutes of game play) and over long periods oftime (i.e., repeated exposure over a period of years). Our theoret-ical approach is the GAAM, which has emerged from our work ona variety of aggression-related domains (Anderson, Anderson, &Deuser, 1996; Anderson, Deuser, & DeNeve, 1995; Anderson,Anderson, Dill, & Deuser, 1998; Dill, Anderson, Anderson, &Deuser, 1997; Lindsay & Anderson, in press). The model inte-grates existing theory and data concerning the learning, develop-ment, instigation, and expression of human aggression. It does so
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Nonviolent video game, Video game controversy, GAAM