O doing research helps to deny or accept theories and

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Doing research helps to find supporting evidence.oDoing research helps to deny or accept theories and hypotheses and to test for reliability and validity.Research Cycle: It is the method used for when conducting research.oFormulate Question: Research QuestionoLiterature Review: What you know about the topic. Studying the research question. Looking at research from a world/global perspective.oSelect Method: Field Research, Surveys, Interviews and much more. The selected method depends on the Research Question. THE METHOD MUST BE APPROPRIATE TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION.oCollect Data: Going out and gathering the data.oAnalyze Data: Investigating Patterns.oReport Results: Presenting at conferences of research experts on your research topic. It’s like a quality check of your research and having expertsreviewing and critiquing your work. You will ask experts to check your data and they will critique your work before they decide that it gets published or not.oExample:There’s research done on obesity rates in the USA but not in Canada. Then you would want to research on Obesity rates in Canada. Then that’s an original research question.Variable: It is a concept that can take on more than one value.
Example of a Variable: oGender (Concept): Male More than one valueFemale More than one valueOther More than one valuePrefer not to say More than one valueCorrelation: There is a relationship between the Independent Variable (IV, X) and Dependent Variable(DV, Y). Causation: This is where one causes the other. It is harder to establish. The independent variable (IV, X) causes the dependent variable (DV, Y). Population: It is the entire group about which the researcher wants to generalized.Sampling:It is the part of the population of interest that is selected for analysis.Researchers know their intended population, but a population is too big, time-consuming and expensive, so then they choose a sample.Sampling Frame: It is a list of the items or people forming a population from which a sample is taken.Sampling Techniques: oProbability Sampling (Random Sampling): It is mathematically random. Everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected.oNon-Probability Sampling (Non-Random Sampling): The researcher makes a decision about who ultimately ends up in their study.Quantitative Data: Used in Probability Sampling. It is numericaldata.Qualitative Data: Used in Non-Probability Sampling. It is descriptive data.Sociological Methods: oExperiments:Lab work.You can control the conditions in the lab.Control Group: Not Exposed to IV.Experimental Group:Exposed to the IV.Pros: Best method for establishing causation.Cons: Our social behavior and work is not like a lab.Low ecological validity.Results cannot be represented in a real-life situation.oSurveys:When you have someone asking you a question and they give you a set of answer than you can choose from.A questionnaire is a type of survey.Face-to-face, over the phone or giving the questionnaire, and the researcher isn’t present.Surveys help us to

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