By 1900 chinese sovereignty had already been

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By 1900, Chinese sovereignty had already been undermined by Japanese territorial gains in the first Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 and by the respective European, Japanese, and Russian leaseholds and economic spheres of influence that had established foreign economic dominance over China. The Open Door Policy merely guaranteed that another nation, the United States, would be contributing to the diminishment of Chinese sovereignty. e. American missionaries were some of the most prominent and active religious proselytizers in China during this period. Question 11 a. China’s Boxer Rebellion was motivated, in part, by the built-up frustration and violent rage felt by a patriotic group of Chinese nationals, known as the Boxers, for their training in martial arts, towards years of intrusive and imperious religious proselytizing by American and European Christian missionaries in China.. b. The Boxers murdered two hundred foreigners, including scores of Christian missionaries from American and Europe, and killed thousands of Chinese Christians. The Boxers also besieged the foreign diplomatic corps stationed in the capital, Beijing, and ransacked American, European, and Japanese economic interests. These developments promoted the sending of a multinational military rescue force of approximately eighteen thousand soldiers to stem the rebellion and preserve the threatened economic interests and property of the allied invaders. c. The United States contributed several thousand American troops to this multinational military force to protect U.S. commercial, extraterritoriality, and Christian religious rights under the 1844 Treaty of Wanghia and uphold the fair competition and open trading access principles of the Open Door policy. d. Correct answer. Chinese nationals who supported the Boxer rebellion believed that the articulation and acceptance of the Open Door policy in 1899, by the American, European, and Japanese imperial powers dominating China, represented a further undercutting of Chinese sovereignty because it sanctioned the imperialist leaseholds and exploitative economic spheres of influence maintained by these imperial powers. Chinese nationals viewed the Open Door’s internecine fair competition rules, established for American, European, and Japanese imperialist economic activities in China, as a further undermining of Chinese political sovereignty, particularly since the Open Door policy was developed and implemented by these Western and Japanese powers without consulting the Chinese themselves. e. The Boxer Rebellion was led by a nationalist group, known as the Boxers, for their training in martial arts, who mobilized under the clarion call of “Kill Foreign Devils.” The Boxer Rebellion represented a nationalist uprising in 1900 by a patriotic group of Chinese citizens against American, European, and Japanese efforts to maintain their dominance and influence over Chinese political and economic affairs.
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