Trained interviewers treated people as the

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Trained interviewers treated people as the interviewers in the first experiment had treated either the White or the Black applicants When videotapes of the interviews were later rated Those who were treated like the Blacks in the first experiment seemed more nervous and less effective Moreover, the interviewees could themselves sense a difference Those treated the way the Blacks had been treated judged their interviewers to be less adequate and less friendly The experimenters concluded part of “the ‘problem’ of Black performance resides . . . within the interaction setting itself” o Prejudice affects its target - Stereotype threat o A self-confirming apprehension that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype o A disruptive concern When facing a negative stereotype That one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Have immediate effects o Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies Hammer one’s reputation into one’s self-concept o Just being sensitive to prejudice is enough to make us se self-conscious when living as a numerical minority Result can be diminished mental and physical stamina (Inzlicht & others, 2006) o Placed in a situation where others expect you to perform poorly Your anxiety may also cause you to confirm the belief o Difficult math test (Spencer, Steele & Quinn, 1999) Given to both men and women students who had similar math backgrounds When told that there were no gender differences on the test and no evaluation of any group stereotype
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Women’s performance consistently equaled the men’s Told that there was a gender difference Women dramatically confirmed the stereotype Frustrated by the extremely difficult test questions They apparently felt added apprehension Undermined their performances o Media can provoke stereotype threat (Davies & others, 2002) Had women and men watch a series of commercials expecting that they would be tested for their memory of details For half the participants The commercials contained only neutral stimuli For the other half Some of the commercials contained images of airheaded women After seeing the stereotypic images Women not only performed worse than men on a math test Reported less interest in obtaining a math or science major o Difficult verb abilities tests (Steele & Aronson, 1995) IV: intellectual ability (threat) or verbal task (no threat) DV: performance on the verbal task (difficult) No threat condition African American and White participants performed equally Threat condition (under conditions high in stereotype threat) African American performed more poorly than the White participants o When people are reminded of a negative stereotype about themselves Can adversely affect performance (Stone, 2000) o Tell students they are at risk of failure Erode their performance (Steele, 1997) Cause them to disidentify with school Seek self-esteem elsewhere o How does stereotype threat undermine performance? (Schmader, Johns & Forbes, 2008) Stress
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