It results from acid reflux or the backflow of

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It results from acid reflux, or the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus. As the acid enters the esophagus, it irritates the tissues, causing a burning feeling. Heartburn can also be a symptom of a (hy-AY-tuhl HER-nee-uh), a condition in which part of the stomach pushes through an opening in the diaphragm. Because frequent or prolonged heartburn can be an indication of more serious digestive disorders, it is impor- tant to discuss the symptoms with a medical professional. He or she may recommend the use of an antacid or prescribe medications to help relieve symptoms. Gas. Although a certain amount of gas in the stomach and intestines produced from the breakdown of food is normal, excessive gas can result in cramps or an uncomfortable feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. Most foods that contain carbohydrates or complex sugars, such as beans, cabbage, broccoli, onions, and starches, can cause gas. Fats and proteins produce less gas than carbohydrates. hiatal hernia Heartburn Indigestion Incorporate physical activity into your day. How does physical activity enhance the health of your digestive system? 448 Chapter 17 Digestive and Urinary Systems How does viral hepatitis affect the liver? Hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver, is caused by viral infections. Several different viruses exist, including hepa- titis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A is spread by contaminated food or water and by the feces of infected people. Hepatitis B and C can be spread by sexual contact, by contact with infected blood, and by sharing needles with infected drug users. Hepatitis B and C viruses can cause chronic hepatitis, a disease that can last a lifetime.
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Avoiding Stress for Healthy Digestion What does stress have to do with digestion? More than you might think! Stress can affect how your digestive system functions. Plus, stress can lead to poor eating habits. Chronic stress can cause poor absorption of vitamins and minerals, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies. In this activity, you will design a poster displaying stress-management strategies to aid healthy digestion. pencil and paper poster board markers 1. Divide a piece of paper into four sections. 2. Write one of the following concepts in each section: Eat regular meals, with a variety of foods, instead of over- or undereating. Limit comfort foods, which are frequently full of fat and sugar. Limit caffeine, which is a stimulant. Don’t rush through meals; sit down and relax. 3. Under each concept, list 5–10 positive stress-management strategies. For example, under “Limit comfort foods” you may write, “When I’m stressed, I will take a long walk instead of eating cookies.” Under “Don’t rush through meals,” you may write, “I will get up ten minutes earlier every morning so I have time to eat a leisurely breakfast.” 4. Working with a small group, create a poster about one of these four con- cepts, showing how teens can avoid stress and maintain digestive system health. Make your poster colorful and
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