Hepatic sinusoids Bile canaliculi Hepatic triad Artery Vein Bile ductule

Hepatic sinusoids bile canaliculi hepatic triad

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Hepatic sinusoidsBile canaliculiHepatic triad– Artery– VeinBile ductule
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GallbladderConcentrates and stores bileComponents of bileMinerals, cholesterol, phospholipids, fatsBile pigmentsBilirubinCystic ductHepatic ductBile ductEnterohepatic circulationReabsorbed from SI to liver
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PancreasExocrine glandAcinar cellsZymogen granulesEnzymes, zymogensPancreatic ductSodium bicarbonatePancreatic juice
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Bile and Pancreatic Juice RegulationNeuralParasympathetic (vagal) stimulationSympathetic inhibitionHormonalGall bladder contraction and pancreatic secretionCholecystokinin (CCK)GastrinHepatic and pancreatic bicarbonate secretionSecretin
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Small IntestineChemical digestion and nutrient absorption• Duodenum– 1st25 cm (10 in)• Jejunum– Next 2.5 m (8 ft)• Ileum– Last 3.6 m (12 ft)
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Microscopic AnatomyCircular foldsMucosa and submucosaForce chyme to spiral throughVilliAbsorptive Cells (enterocytes)Brush border of microvilliBrush border enzymesGoblet CellsLactealIntestinal cryptsPaneth cellsDuodenal glandsBicarbonate-rich mucus
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Intestinal MotilityFunctionsMix with intestinal juice, bile, pancreatic juiceContact digestion and nutrient absorptionMove residue to LISegmentationMixing/contact digestionPeristalsisMigrating motor complexMovement through SI
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Chemical Digestion/AbsorptionDigestionCarbohydratesComplex CHO to sugarsProteinsProtein to AAsLipidsFats to FAs and monoglyceridesNucleic AcidsRNA and DNA into nucleotide monomersAbsorptionCompleted when chyme reaches ileumIleum reclaims bile salts End of ileum remains some water, indigestable material, bacteriaPassed into large intestine
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Carbohydrate DigestionMouthSalivary amylaseStarch to oligosacchridesStomachChurning, mixingInactivation of salivary amylaseSmall IntestinePancreatic AmylaseOligosacs to smaller oligosacs and DisacsDextrinase and GlucoamylaseBrush Border enzymesSmaller oligosacs to DisacsMaltase, Sucrase, LactaseBrush Border enzymesDisacs to Sacs
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Carbohydrate AbsorptionGlucose transported into absorptive cellsSodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter (SGLT)Secondary active transport coupled to sodiumGalactoseUses SGLT as wellFructoseVia facilitated diffusionConverted into glucoseAll transported to liver!!
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Protein DigestionStomachPepsin Peptide bonds Tyrosine and phenylalaninePolypeptides and AAs leftSmall intestinePancreatic enzymesTrypsin and chymotrypsinTaken apart one AA at a timeBrush Border enzymesCarboxypeptidaseAminopeptidaseDipeptidase
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Protein AbsorptionAA absorption similar to monosaccharides
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  • Spring '10
  • hanson
  • Digestive System, salivary glands, muscularis externa, brush border, gastric secretions

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