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MARY T BOATWRIGHT underlined her independence and self-importance by using he in her dedication of the temple of Fortuna Muliebris, as we In general, she manifested her power and her control of her lavish public expenditure. In other ways as well she expended her wealth as did rich men: for example, at her death she bequeathed 50 million sesterces to Galba in a gesture of patronage and amicitia com- mon among the elite, though unusual in its magnitude.27 On a lesser scale, other imperial women of the Augustan period likewise engaged in public building in Rome, including Octavia and Agrippa's sister Polla.28 In contrast, the imperial women of the early second century make no financial displays at all. No source expressly states that Plotina, Sabina, or any of the other imperial women had freedom of financial action. We hear of no public decree granting them such, although we should probably presume that they somehow had at least the right of three children, a privilege granted to Livia in 9 B.C., and later to other eminent Romans who similarly did not strictly qualify.29 Although Ha- drian and Antoninus Pius both ruled that legacies to the wife of the emperor lapsed if she died before the testator,30 records of legacies to imperial women are lacking. Likewise, no evidence discloses the be- quests of the women themselves. As opposed to a Livia or Agrippina the Younger, almost nothing attests the financial standing and activity of these second-century women. The difficulty of identifying the posses- sions of these women may be underscored by Antoninus Pius' grant of his personal patrimonium to his daughter, but its profits to the state (HA, Pii 7.9).31 27Suet. Galba 5. Willrich (note 25 above) 77-79, lists other public gestures. 28Octavia, S. B. Platner and T. Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Oxford 1929) 76, s.v. Basilica Antoniarum Duarum; Polla, Dio 55.8.3; cf. Purcell (note 3 above) 102, n. 65. 29 It is commonly assumed, and sometimes buttressed by references to coins of the imperial women with Vesta on the reverse, that the imperial women had the privileges of the Vestals, including financial ones: S. B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves (New York 1975) 184; H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, I (London 1923) cxlvi. For the diffusion of the ius liberorum, see (e.g.) Pliny Epp. 10.2.1, 10.94.2 and 2.13.8; Gardner (note 21 above) 20-21. 30. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (Ithaca, NY 1977) 157, citing Dig. XXXI 57 (Mauricianus, Ad legem luliam et Papiam II), which refers specifically to legacies to Plotina and Faustina (I). 31See H. Nesselhauf, "Patrimonium und Res Privata des romischen Kaiser," Bon- ner Historia Augusta-Colloquium 1963 (Bonn 1964) 73-93. For our ambiguous knowledge of the legal classification of imperial holdings, see also Millar (note 30 above) 175-89.
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