Our long standing individualistic beliefs reinforced

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Our long-standing individualistic beliefs, reinforced through waves of immigration, and Our high degree of racial diversity, which makes Americans reluctant to redistribute to those they think of as different.
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American Foreign Policy By foreign policy, we mean the conduct of relations with other nations around the globe. We won’t talk much about the content of foreign policy here – that’s for an IR class! Instead, let’s briefly consider how foreign policymaking differs from domestic policymaking.
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American Foreign Policy: What the Constitution Says Although the Constitution explicitly makes the president Commander in Chief, it also gives the Senate the power to declare war and ratify treaties. Over time, the Supreme Court has read the Constitution as giving the president a fair amount of discretion on foreign policy… …as long as he doesn’t act contrary to the express will of Congress.
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American Foreign Policy: Committing Troops Over time, the U.S. has involved itself in conflicts without officially declaring war, although in some instances presidents have sought Congressional approval anyway. e.g. Both Iraq wars There is some dispute about whether the War Powers Resolution (1973)—which requires Congressional approval for continued engagement by U.S. troops—holds any water. Presidents have ignored it in recent years without penalty. E.g. Clinton in Bosnia, Reagan in Grenada. And now: Obama against ISIS; bombing proceeds without AUMF.
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American Foreign Policy: Treaties The Constitution specifies that a 2/3 majority is needed in the Senate in order for treaties to be ratified. This has frustrated presidents from Wilson (the League of Nations) to Clinton (nuclear test ban). In response, they have increasingly turned to executive agreements in their relations with other nations. These don’t require Congressional approval, although they theoretically could be rescinded by an enacted law.
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American Foreign Policy and Democracy To what extent do policymakers pay attention to Americans’ preferences when making foreign policy? To what extent should they? Americans are relatively uninformed about foreign affairs and tend to view relations with other countries in overly simplistic ways. Perhaps public opinion on these issues should be ignored? Or “guided”? At the same time, there is perhaps no more consequential single action a government takes than deciding to send its citizens to war. Certainly this shouldn’t happen without the public’s consent?
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Arnold: Three concepts that help us understand policymaking Traceability” : Legislators want credit for easy votes for their constituents. They want to avoid blame for difficult votes.
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