The study found that the intervention was effective with improved outcomes

The study found that the intervention was effective

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The study found that the intervention was effective with improved outcomes regarding treating pain in hospice (Cagle et al., 2015). Garcia-Toyos et al. (2014) found that almost 16% of their participants felt they did not receive sufficient information to make an informed decision on their treatment plan. Approximately 30% of the participants felt they did not participate in decision making. The study found many participants had inaccurate beliefs about opioids with can affect positive treatment results. The participants further state that they only received general information, specifically just that the analgesic was to manage their pain. The study also found that patients were interested in receiving more information about the end of life process and the goals of treatment. The trends in this research establish the importance of education about end of life issues, specifically pain management and the use of opioids such as morphine. This author feels the misconceptions surrounding pain management during end of life can be overcome by educating caregivers with evidence-based information and providing caregivers with the tools to assess
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MORPHINE AND HOSPICE 11 pain. It is the intent of this paper to address whether this education is more effective in managing pain when provided during hospice admission rather than near end of life. According to Kehl (2014), preparing caregivers for end of live is a vital part of hospice. Prepared families lead to better outcomes, family satisfaction and competence as well as knowledge. On the other hand, a lack of preparedness can lead to caregiver fear, anxiety, depression as well as decreased quality of life for the patient. Many of the participants, nurses, expressed that preparation should begin during the hospice admission. This way, when the patient begins to decline, the caregiver has the knowledge to take the next step in care. It prepares them when symptoms become exacerbated. The participants, however, stress the importance of assessing the caregivers for readiness to learn and what needs they have to better understand and process the information. The study also suggests that by preparing families early in the process through education, the nurse has an opportunity to reinforce the information throughout the transition. The participants used communication methods that built a trusting, therapeutic relationship. They stated it was an important strategy to gain family acceptance of the information provided. The study by Noh et al. (2016) explored the informational needs of caregivers. One theme that arrived was the informational need regarding palliative medicine. The participants expressed the need to inform caregivers about the use of morphine not just for pain management but for shortness of breath. The nurses in this study explain to the caregiver that morphine allows the patient to pass peacefully without struggle and pain. One participant explains that it is the disease process that is going to end life, not the morphine. They conclude that the hospice admission process is key to providing knowledge to patients and family caregivers. However, it
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