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(p. 225) • Alert them to what they stand to gain by listening. (p. 225) • Demonstrate that the speech purpose is consistent with their values and motives. (p. 225) LearningCurve can help you review. Go to bedfordstmartins.com/speakersguide INTRODUCTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND LANGUAGE SPEAKER’S REFERENCE SPEAKER’S REFERENCE
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SPEAKER’S REFERENCE Introductions, Conclusions, and Language 216 CHAPTER 15 Developing the Conclusion Use the Conclusion to: • Signal the close of the speech. (p. 228) • Summarize key points and reiterate the thesis. (p. 228) • Challenge the audience to respond to your appeals. (p. 229) Make the Conclusion Meaningful and Memorable • As in the introduction, use techniques such as quotations, humor, and/or brief stories. (p. 230) • Pose rhetorical questions. (p. 231) • Link back to material in the introduction. (p. 231) CHAPTER 16 Using Language to Style the Speech Prepare Your Speeches Using an Oral Style • Use language that is simpler, more repetitious, more rhythmic, and more interactive than written language. (p. 232) • Structure the speech clearly, using transitions to indicate beginning, middle, and end. (p. 233) • Use an organizational pattern. (p. 233) Strive for Simplicity • Try to say what you mean in short, clear sentences. (p. 233) • Avoid words unlikely to be understood by your audience. (p. 233) • Steer clear of unnecessary jargon. (p. 233) Aim for Conciseness • Use fewer words to express your thoughts. (p. 233) • Experiment with phrases and sentence fragments. (p. 234) Use Repetition Frequently • Repeat key words and phrases to emphasize important ideas and to help listeners follow your logic. (p. 234)
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SPEAKER’S REFERENCE Introductions, Conclusions, and Language 217 Use Personal Pronouns • Foster a sense of inclusion by using the personal pronouns I , you , and we . (p. 234) Use Concrete and Descriptive Language • Use imagery (concrete and colorful language) that plays off the senses. (p. 235) Use descriptive adjectives (“the dark hour”) and strong verbs (“gaze” rather than “look”). • Use fi gures of speech, including similes, metaphors , allusion, and irony to help listeners get the message. (p. 236) Choose Words That Build Credibility • Use language that is appropriate to the audience, occasion, and subject. (p. 237) • Choose words that are both denotatively (literally) and connotatively (subjectively) accurate and appropriate for the audience. (p. 238) • Use the active voice. (p. 239) • Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language. (p. 239) Use Repetition Often • Repeat key words, phrases, or sentences at various intervals. (p. 240) • Choose words that repeat the same sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (alliteration). (p. 241) • Arrange words, phrases, or sentences in similar form (parallelism). (p. 242) KEY TERMS Chapter 14 anecdote rhetorical question preview statement Chapter 15 call to action Chapter 16 style oral style
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SPEAKER’S REFERENCE Introductions, Conclusions, and Language 218 jargon concrete language abstract language imagery figures of speech simile metaphor cliché mixed metaphor analogy faulty analogy personification
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  • Fall '16
  • taylor jones

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