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Conclusions This research contributes to the development and understanding of TQM implementation in China and the effects of its practices on organisation performance. Based on the review of relevant literatures, and the results and findings from questionnaire-based empirical analysis, this research demonstrates that TQM does have positive impacts on firm performance and has been adopted as a useful approach in a number of Chinese companies. The TQM literature suggested that TQM is an integrated management approach and a long-term process. It relates to a wide range of issues. A good implementation of TQM is through executing all aspects of TQM and establishing a new quality culture in the organisation. To be successful, it must be top-management driven and focus on maximis- ing efficiency and effectiveness, through improving systems and processes, as well as aligning business objectives and customer requirements. The key to implementing TQM is combining a series of philosophies and techniques with practices in the organ- isation and making sure the total quality management principles are planted into every- body’s mind and are run in every department’s day-to-day work. The senior managers should first realise the significance of TQM and play an indispensable role in leadership and commitment. They must personally involve themselves in the quality affairs to show their support and stimulate the formation of a company-wide quality culture. Training, communication and internal customer needs should be emphasised to increase employee involvement and the coordination of the organisation. TQM techniques such as JIT should be used to reduce cost and lead time. Defects, errors and breakdown ought to be reduced by every individual, and departments should work towards doing things right at first time. Attention must be paid to all of these requirements in order to satisfy external customer’s requirements, which is one of the most important business objectives in the organisation. All these points are worthwhile considering the amount of evidence that successful TQM implementation can positively influence company’s performance. Using a questionnaire method, the research gathered and analysed data on four measur- able areas that could reveal the extent of TQM implementation in China and the impact of TQM strategies on Chinese company performance. These areas were employee relations, operating procedures, customer satisfaction, and financial performance. This survey is a time-effective method without making excessive demands for both respondents and researcher. The results of the questionnaire show a consistently positive pattern of organ- isational performance for those organisations that have implemented TQM. With a TQM process in place, the companies showed better performance than before and better than those that did not adopt TQM. Furthermore, there are indications that if the degree of TQM implementation is extensive, the performance would be better still. These patterns suggest that there is a positive association between the application of TQM and tangible Implementation of TQM in China 525
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benefits. Therefore, it can be concluded that total quality management does have a direct
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