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•Self-fulfilling prophecy: occurs when our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations. Self-fulfilling prophecies are more likely to occur at the beginning of a relationship. It is also stronger when several people hold the same expectations of the individual. It is also stronger among people with a history of low achievement. Eg: A performs less well on math tests after being informed that B tend to perform better on them. A performs better on these test when A is not exposed to this negative self-fulfilling prophecy.
Positive organizational behavior: focusing on positive rather than negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual well-being.•Other perceptual effects:Halo effect: a boss who values punctuality notice that an employee is sometimes late for work, the boss might form a negative image of the employee and evaluate that person’s other traits unfavorable as well. False-consensus effect: when people overestimate the extent to which others have similar beliefs or behaviors to their own. Eg, employees who are thinking of quitting their jobs overestimate the percentage of coworkers who are also thinking about quitting.Primacy effect: our tendency to quickly form an opinion of people on the basis of the first information we receive about them. The problem is that first impressions –particularly negative first impressions-are difficult to change.Recency Effect: occurs when the most recent info dominates our perceptions. Eg, when boss evaluate the performance of employees over the previous year, the most recent performance info dominates the evaluation because it is the most easily recalled. Improving Perceptions:•Awareness of perceptual biases: One of the most obvious and widely practiced ways to reduce perceptual biases is by knowing that they exist. Awareness of perceptual biases can reduce these biases to some extent by making people more mindful of their thoughts and actions. •Improving self-awareness: We need to become more aware of our beliefs, values and attitudes and from that insight, gain better understanding of biases in our own decisions and behaviors.Objective: Increase the size of the open area so that both you and people around are aware of your perceptual limitations. Informing others of your beliefs, feelings and experiences that may influence the work relationship. Take feedbacks from others about your behaviors. •Meaningful interaction: is founded on the contact hypothesis, which states that under certain conditions, people who interact will be less prejudiced or perceptually biased toward one another. (spending time with other members of other groups can improve your understanding and opinion of those persons to some extent)
Reduce dependences on stereotypes to understand others, because we gain better knowledge about that individual and experience the unique attributes of that person in action.