So the solar system is heliocentric o did god make it

Info icon This preview shows pages 2–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
So the solar system is Heliocentric o Did God make it this way? o Implies that prior authorities were wrong. OR o How does Nature really work? Are there natural explanations for motions observed? o Aristotelean view: Circular motion and spheres were “obviously” the perfect method Add epicycles to Save the Phenomenon Are there natural causes for natural effects? Early ideas of force (an agent causing action) o Is physical contact required? Everyday experiences Bow and arrow, gun powder and cannon ball, horse and wagon o Can forces be applied to an object without contact? No—an ether exists everywhere
Image of page 2

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Yes—action at a distance everyday example falling objects via “gravity” How are cause and effect linked—communication scheme? Pre-Newtonian Hypotheses o What was the physical cause of planetary motions? Motions accepted as reliable and the result of physical cause Examine known (i.e., available at the time) forces Connect them (“Do science”) and test them. Does it work? Is a “fix”required? Workable theory o What happened between Kepler’s death and Galileo’s trial (1630s) to Isaac Newton’s Principia in 1689? William Gilbert (1544-1603) o Physician to Queen Elizabeth I o Creator of the “Magnetic Revolution” o Fig 9.6 René Descartes (1596-1650) o Philosopher Rationalism and role of doubt “cogito, ergo sum” Galileo’s trial had an impact on his publications Le Monde (1634) Principia Philosophiae (1644) Mathematician Cartesian’s description of nature o Vortices; magnetic field o Gigantic vortex system o Whirpool motion: nudged the planets along o Vortex theory (look up) Lecture 13: The Universe According to Newton Isaac Newton (1643-1727) o Born in England on Jan 4, 1643 o At the time, people were still using the pre-Gregorian calendar. o Fields of Work: mathematics ( he created Calculus !); optics ( discovered the spectrum of white light! Invented the reflecting Newtonian telescope !); Gravity and mechanics ( laws of motion! ) and ( universal gravity, celestial mechanics ) The Law of Gravity o Action at a distance o Law: “The force of attraction between two bodies depends directly on the masses of the two bodies, indirectly upon the square of the distance between the bodies, and is directed along the line connecting them.” [fig 4.16]
Image of page 3
Isaac Newton’s Legacy: How Nature Works o major work: Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica (The Principia 1687) o Newton realized that the natural state of motion was not in circles but rather in straight lines (same as Galileo) o LAW 1: a body at rest or in uniform straight line motion will continue to be at rest or in uniform straight line motion unless affected by an outside force (Law of Inertia) o LAW 2: if a force is applied to a body, it accelerates in the direction of the force (F=ma) o LAW 3: to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction (mutual nature of interactions) [FIG. 4.5] Applications of Newtonian Physics o The Clockwork Universe ( look up ) o
Image of page 4

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern