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Exam 2 Outline

Tycho and galileo had observations tychos data

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Tycho and Galileo had observations. Tycho’s data enabled Kepler Galileo’s observations falsified Ptolemy’s model and verified Copernicus’s model. So the solar system is Heliocentric o Did God make it this way? o Implies that prior authorities were wrong. OR o How does Nature really work? Are there natural explanations for motions observed? o Aristotelean view: Circular motion and spheres were “obviously” the perfect method Add epicycles to Save the Phenomenon Are there natural causes for natural effects? Early ideas of force (an agent causing action) o Is physical contact required? Everyday experiences Bow and arrow, gun powder and cannon ball, horse and wagon o Can forces be applied to an object without contact? No—an ether exists everywhere
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Yes—action at a distance everyday example falling objects via “gravity” How are cause and effect linked—communication scheme? Pre-Newtonian Hypotheses o What was the physical cause of planetary motions? Motions accepted as reliable and the result of physical cause Examine known (i.e., available at the time) forces Connect them (“Do science”) and test them. Does it work? Is a “fix”required? Workable theory o What happened between Kepler’s death and Galileo’s trial (1630s) to Isaac Newton’s Principia in 1689? William Gilbert (1544-1603) o Physician to Queen Elizabeth I o Creator of the “Magnetic Revolution” o Fig 9.6 René Descartes (1596-1650) o Philosopher Rationalism and role of doubt “cogito, ergo sum” Galileo’s trial had an impact on his publications Le Monde (1634) Principia Philosophiae (1644) Mathematician Cartesian’s description of nature o Vortices; magnetic field o Gigantic vortex system o Whirpool motion: nudged the planets along o Vortex theory (look up) Lecture 13: The Universe According to Newton Isaac Newton (1643-1727) o Born in England on Jan 4, 1643 o At the time, people were still using the pre-Gregorian calendar. o Fields of Work: mathematics ( he created Calculus !); optics ( discovered the spectrum of white light! Invented the reflecting Newtonian telescope !); Gravity and mechanics ( laws of motion! ) and ( universal gravity, celestial mechanics ) The Law of Gravity o Action at a distance o Law: “The force of attraction between two bodies depends directly on the masses of the two bodies, indirectly upon the square of the distance between the bodies, and is directed along the line connecting them.” [fig 4.16]
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Isaac Newton’s Legacy: How Nature Works o major work: Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica (The Principia 1687) o Newton realized that the natural state of motion was not in circles but rather in straight lines (same as Galileo) o LAW 1: a body at rest or in uniform straight line motion will continue to be at rest or in uniform straight line motion unless affected by an outside force (Law of Inertia)
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Tycho and Galileo had observations Tychos data enabled...

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