Socioeconomic characteristics as in dicated by their

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socioeconomic characteristics, as in-dicated by their lower family income,higher poverty rates, and lower edu-cation of the family head. However,they are about twice less likely tohead single-parent households thanare natives. Greater family cohesive-ness may have something to do withsecond-generation educational out-comes. Figures in Table 1 indicatethat children of immigrants are aslikely to attend private schools, asunlikely to be dropouts, and as likelyto graduate from high school as na-tive-parentage youth.12These comparisons are, of course,based on averages that conceal greatdiversity within each universe. Amongsecond-generation youths in particu-lar, preliminary field research indi-cates wide differences in educational,linguistic, and social psychologicaloutcomes. None is more importantthan the forms that an inexorableprocess of cultural assimilation takesamong different immigrant national-ities and its effects on their youths.We explore these differences and pro-12. Because of data limitations, compari-sons of years of education completed and highschool dropouts are limited to persons aged 20or older still living with their parents. Theseresults may not be representative of the re-spective universes of adult individuals. Seeibid.This content downloaded from 128.228.0.60 on Mon, 11 Sep 2017 21:29:22 UTCAll use subject to
THE NEW SECOND GENERATION 81vide a theoretical explanation of thecauses in the next sections.ASSIMILATIONAS A PROBLEMThe Haitian immigrant commu-nity of Miami is composed of some75,000 legal and clandestine immi-grants, many of whom sold every-thing they owned in order to buy pas-sage to America. First-generationHaitians are strongly oriented to-ward preserving a strong nationalidentity, which they associate bothwith community solidarity and withsocial networks promoting individualsuccess.'3 In trying to instill nationalpride and an achievement orienta-tion in their children, they clash,however, with the youngsters' every-day experiences in school. LittleHaiti is adjacent to Liberty City, themain black inner-city area of Miami,and Haitian adolescents attend pre-dominantly inner-city schools. Na-tive-born youths stereotype Haitiansas too docile and too subservient towhites and they make fun of Frenchand Creole and of the Haitians' ac-cent. As a result, second-generationHaitian children find themselvestorn between conflicting ideas andvalues: to remain Haitian they wouldhave to face social ostracism and con-tinuing attacks in school; to becomeAmerican-black American in thiscase-they would have to forgo theirparents' dreams of making it inAmerica on the basis of ethnic soli-darity and preservation of traditionalvalues. 14An adversarial stance toward thewhite mainstream is common amonginner-city minority youths who,while attacking the newcomers'ways, instill in them a consciousnessof American-style discrimination. Acommon message is the devaluationof education as a vehicle for advance-ment of all black youths, a message

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